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1.0 Background to the Study
Housing is an integral part of human settlement that fulfils basic need and has a profound impact on the quality of life, health, welfare as well as productivity of man. It plays a crucial role in integrated physical and economic development, environmental sustainability, natural disaster mitigation and employment generation as well as wealth creation (Erguden, 2001; Boehm and Schlottmann, 2001; UN-HABITAT, 2006a). The desire for adequate and affordable housing also has strong links to the need for security, safety and proper socio-economic status of individuals and communities. In spite of this widely acknowledged importance of housing and various efforts in making adequate and affordable housing available to majority of people, a large proportion of urban residents in less developed countries do not have access to decent housing at affordable cost (Tipple,2004; 2006; UN-HABITAT, 2006a; Greene and Rojas, 2008). As a result, most urban residents in Developing Countries live in housing conditions that constitute an affront to human dignity and which comes with appalling social, economic, spatial and health implications (Rondinelli, 1990; Cotton and Tayler, 1994; Opara, 2003; UN-HABITAT, 2006d; Coker et al., 2007; UNFPA, 2007). Hence, inadequate housing condition has become an intractable challenge that has continued to receive attention from governments and individuals in many developing countries.
In line with human tradition which seeks to investigate, describe, understand and proffer solutions to ameliorate defects in human conditions, and enhance individual and collective well-being; both public and private sectors have continued to take concerted efforts at addressing the social and economic challenges posed by inadequacies in housing provision in many countries of the world. These efforts have informed legislations, policies, strategies and reforms, which most often have culminated in various housing programmes (Onibokun, 1985; Rondinelli, 1990; Ajanlekoko, 2002; Sengupta, 2005; Sengupta and Sharma, 2008). A review of literature shows that between 1950 and 2000, governments in many developing countries have engaged in different housing programmes and delivery strategies. For example, previous studies have shown that successive administrations in Nigeria had launched a minimum of seven public housing programmes in the last few decades in a bid to address increasing housing challenges in the country (Onibokun, 1985; Awotona, 1990; Ogu, 1999; Ogu and Ogbuozobe, 2001; Ajanlekoko, 2002; UN-HABITAT, 2006a; Akinmoladun and Oluwoye, 2007; Ademiluyi and Raji, 2008).
However, substantial literature on public housing in developing countries has revealed three main streams of criticism (Mukhija, 2004). First, it is argued that most public housing schemes are inefficient and ill conceived, and thus failed to meet the needs of target population (Rondinelli, 1990; Mba, 1992). Second, direct government involvement in housing provision is viewed as being negligible compared to the volume of housing provided by informal private sector (UN-HABITAT, 2006a; 2006c). Finally, government intervention in the housing market to check rising cost of housing is seen as counter-productive and an impediment to smooth operation of housing market and efficient housing delivery system (Sengupta and Ganesan, 2004; Mukhija, 2004).Consequently, many scholars and stakeholders have argued that government has no business in providing housing for people, but rather government should act as a partner, enabler and facilitator of housing process by making available appropriate incentives, policy and good regulatory environment necessary for effective private sector participation in housing provision (World Bank, 1993; UNCHS, 2000). In view of this, there is an emerging consensus that current approaches to public housing be based on market-friendly policies and strategies that encourage reduction in government‟s direct involvement in public housing provision. Ong and Lenard (2002) and UN-HABITAT (2006a) were however of the opinion that this does not necessarily mean reduction in government‟s social responsibility in providing housing for the citizens, but rather it implies the production of housing through collaborative approach in an integrated manner.
In the light of foregoing criticisms coupled with the need for sustainable solution to burgeoning housing challenges; most governments in developing countries are engaging in new housing policies, programmes and strategies that seek to meet demands of market-driven economies in addressing housing needs of their people (Sengupta and Ganesan, 2004; Sengupta, 2005; Sengupta and Sharma, 2008). In Nigeria for instance, current approaches to public housing provision are based on private sector-driven strategies (National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, 2004; Aribigbola, 2008; African Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development, 2008). Similar approaches are known to have been engaged in countries such as India, Malaysia, Peru and many other developing countries (see Arimah, 1999; Ong and Lenard, 2002; Sengupta and Tipple, 2007; Fernandez-Maldonado and Bredenoord, 2010). Surprisingly to date, the outcomes of those strategies, reforms and programmes are yet to be empirically evaluated in many of these countries, including Nigeria.
Prior to this time, several studies (Kaitilla ,1993; Rysin, 1996; Ukoha and Beamish ,1997; Magutu, 1997; Djebarni and Al-Abed, 2000 ; Lall, 2002; Gilderbloom et al, 2005 ; Ilesanmi,
2005; Yeun et al., 2006 ; Erdogan et al. 2007; Obeng-Odoom, 2009; Mohit et al., 2010) had evaluated various aspects of public housing in countries such as Guinea, Nigeria, India, Malaysia, Kenya, Ghana and many other developing countries. These studies focus on the product of public housing by examining residents‟ satisfaction and accessibility to urban services as well as the underlying production and management frameworks. None of these previous studies neither assessed the validity of underlying theories in the respective public housing programmes nor examined residents‟ perception of the level of adequacy of housing provided. These identified gaps are certainly vital in providing solid evidence upon which factual judgement on the underlying theories in public housing can be based.
This study therefore undertook an in-depth evaluation of public housing between May 2003 and December 2010 in Ogun State of Nigeria. It principally examined the outcomes of four housing delivery strategies used, particularly with respect to residents‟ perception of the level of adequacy of and satisfaction with housing provided as well as the quality of life of residents in public housing in study area. This is with a view to assessing the validity of the underlying theory in public housing in the study area, and thus bridging the gap in literature on the subject matter.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Despite burgeoning criticism on failure of public housing to provide quality, affordable and adequate housing units to target population in Nigeria; several studies have shown that governments in Nigeria have continuously engaged in different housing delivery strategies to address the problem of providing adequate, affordable and sustainable housing to the citizens (Kabir, 2004; Akinmoladun and Oluwoye, 2007; Ademiluyi and Raji, 2008). For instance, Ogun State government in Nigeria recently planned to provide about 12,230 housing units between 2003 and 2011 through its public housing programme. The Government‟s commitment to public housing provision, proclaimed by its political leaders, is reflected in the objectives of the State‟s Housing Policy. Specifically, the objectives of public housing provision in this State are to (i) enhance the evolution of appropriate institutional framework for public housing delivery (ii) encourage home ownership with secured tenure among all socio-economic groups (iii) promote private sector participation in public housing (iv) provide self-sufficient public housing estates that meet the daily challenges of all residents and (v) provide all socio-economic groups access to adequate housing at affordable cost . It is expected that public housing in Ogun State will
result in the provision of adequate housing and improvement of aesthetics of the urban landscape, and ultimately lead to improved quality of life of residents in public housing estates. Public housing as a social intervention programme is designed according to peoples‟ perceptions of what seems to work based on practitioners‟ assumptions and logical reasoning (Birckmayer and Weiss, 2000). According to Weiss (1997), such a programme is born out of experience and professional lore. It is usually implemented based on defined strategies to achieve set goals. Preliminary investigations revealed that current efforts in public housing in Ogun State of Nigeria has so far relied on four main housing delivery strategies-including the Core housing, Turnkey, Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and Shell stage strategies in providing the planned number of housing units. However, till date, very little is known on the performance of these strategies. Moreover, several studies (Idemudia, 1980; Muritala, 1980; Bana, 1991; Ali, 1996; Ukoha and Beamish, 1997; Ilesanmi, 2005; Olatubara and Fatoye, 2007; Fatoye and Odusami, 2009; Jiboye, 2009; 2010) have evaluated public housing schemes in different parts of Nigeria. Each of these studies attempted at identifying areas of deficiencies in public housing provision from residents‟ satisfaction point of view. But it has been observed that certain inadequacies which bear upon the focus and usefulness of the findings for factual judgement on the performance of, and validity of underlying theories in public housing exist.
First, data used in the studies cited above were collected from selected public housing estates built by different administrations in different housing programmes and periods rather than on housing estates developed through an integrated public housing programme by a particular administration. Second, those studies placed little or no emphasis on assessing the plausibility and/or validity of the underlying theories in public housing programmes in which the housing estates were developed. Third, residents‟ perception of the level of adequacy of housing provided and its influence on their quality of life were not assessed. Lastly, none of those studies focused on Ogun State or any public housing estate within its territory.
Generally speaking, the problem with public housing in Nigeria today has been succinctly articulated in the 1991 Nigerian National Housing Policy. This document asserts that lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation has contributed to the failure of public housing provision in this country (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1991).This submission was corroborated by Obashoro (2002) who noted that proper programme evaluation was rarely done in Nigeria, and as a result, it was very difficult to assess the real outcome of programmes in terms of their achievement level in the country. Moreover, Sanusi (2003) and Adedeji (2005) observed that a large quantum of literature on housing in Nigeria is derived from
postulations, opinions, and intellectual brainstorming rather than on proper investigation of the real situation. This goes to suggest that adequate attention has not been given to proper evaluation of public housing in Nigeria, vis-a-vis their objectives and outcomes. This has partly accounted for dearth of empirical data on the outcome of public housing in Nigeria in general and Ogun State in particular in recent times. Hence, there is gap in knowledge on the performance of different housing delivery strategies used in public housing provisions, the characteristics of housing provided, personalities and attributes of residents of housing units as well as the extent to which housing provided has influenced the quality of life of occupants of public housing in Ogun State. Most importantly, there is also a gap in our understanding of the extent to which public housing providers‟ perceptions and beliefs of public housing provisions are working as social intervention programme. It is this gap in literature that this study attempted to fill.
From the foregoing it is obvious that there is limited research on this subject matter. This has obscured our understanding of the outcomes of most recent efforts in public housing in the study area. This study therefore argues that for adequate understanding of the performance of public housing as well as validity of underlying theories, in-depth evaluation needs to be carried out to assess the extent to which public housing has achieved or failed to achieve the intended outcomes. It is for this reason that this research sought to evaluate public housing provision in Ogun State under the administration of Otunba Gbenga Daniel. The study assessed the plausibility or validity of the underpinning theory in public housing in the State by examining the extent to which four delivery strategies have provided adequate housing and impacted on the quality of life of residents of public housing in this State. These are considered relevant in comparing and contrasting outcomes of the different housing delivery strategies on one hand and examining empirically residents‟ perception of the adequacy of housing provided through these strategies on the other hand.
In order to achieve the goal and objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated:
(i) What are the organizational capacities of public housing agencies, housing delivery strategies and characteristics of housing provided through the different housing delivery strategies in public housing in Ogun State?
(ii) What are the socio-economic characteristics of residents in selected housing estates developed through the various housing delivery strategies in public housing in Ogun State?
(iii) To what extent does public housing achieved the objective of providing adequate housing to residents of public housing estates in Ogun State?
(iv) What factors contribute to the level of adequacy of housing provided through the different strategies as expressed by the residents?
(v) To what extent are the residents satisfied with the residential environment provided in public housing estates and what factors influence this in the study area?
(vi) What is the overall impact of the public housing on the quality of life of residents as measured by residents‟ satisfaction with life in selected public housing estates in Ogun State and what factors account for this?
1.2 Aim of Study
The overall aim of this study is to evaluate the public housing in Ogun State, with a view to examining the extent to the different housing delivery strategies have provided adequate and satisfactory housing and influenced the quality of life of residents of public housing in this State.
1.3 Objectives of Study
The specific objectives of this research are to:
(i) assess the organizational capacity of public housing agencies and compare the housing delivery strategies used in public housing in Ogun State.
(ii) examine the characteristics of housing provided in public housing in the study area (iii)analyze the socio-economic characteristics of residents in selected housing estates
developed through the different strategies in public housing in the study area.
(iv) examine residents‟ perception of the adequacy of housing provided through the different housing delivery strategies and factors that influenced it.
(v) examine residents‟ satisfaction with housing and with life in selected public housing estates and the factors that influenced these in Ogun State.
An evaluation research on the public housing in Ogun State is no doubt an important one. This is going by the notion that the outcomes of current strategies engaged by government in solving the
problem of providing adequate, affordable and sustainable housing in this State in recent time are not known. Therefore, this study is important for several reasons.
First, Bana (1991) and Emerole (2002) indicated that inadequate capacity of public housing agencies to deliver housing was one of the key challenges of public housing in Nigeria. This suggests that understanding the organizational capacity and constraints of public housing agencies to provide housing is necessary in judging their performance. It can also help improve on their capacity and thus enhancing the productivity of the public housing sub-sector. This study is thus justified on the basis that it attempts to provide basic information that will enhance our knowledge of the organizational capacity of selected key public housing agencies in study area. This is also considered necessary in assessing the outcomes of public housing provisions and making useful recommendations.
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