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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Pesticides have been a very popular means to exterminate agricultural pests. About 350 million kg of pesticides are annually applied on 114 million ha of cropland in the United States of America, resulting in average deposit of 3.1 kg/ha (Pimentel and Levitan, 1986). In Saudi Arabia, the amount of liquid and powder pesticides imported in 2007 was 6.7 million liters and 2.8 thousand tons, respectively (Ministry of Agriculture, 2008). The efficient application of agricultural chemical is a major social and economical issue in current agricultural business. Public environmental concerns have increased against the agricultural chemicals, such as pesticide, which are viewed as a major source of environmental pollution. Moreover, the cost of these chemicals has also increased. Inaccurate application of pesticides could result in more contaminated environment and higher farming cost (Al-Gaadi, 1998). Therefore, the accuracy of pesticide applications has to be increased in order to greatly reduce the bad consequences of applying these chemicals.
A spray patternator is a device used to empirically determine the distribution (scatter or speed) of fluid from one or more spray nozzles. When one spray nozzle is used, there is a relatively even distribution of fluid on the spray surface. However, if two spray nozzle are used together such that there is an area of overlap, there will be a section of higher fluid concentration. This area of excess fluid is under desired because it result in increased costs and, in some cases, may be harmful to the environment. Therefore, it is desirable to locate an optimal spacing between the nozzles and ascertain height from target so that the spray distribution is as uniform as possible and the overlap regions do not result in areas of high concentration, minimizing excess fluid.
A spray patternator consists of a table inclined at about ten degree divided into a number of grooved channels. The width of the channel is dependents upon the desired resolution of the spray distribution. Obviously, smaller channels width will produce higher resolution of the spray distribution. The spray nozzle are supported at regulated height above the table and turned on. The nozzle location above the table will also affect the distribution of the spray so it is important to test the nozzle at different heights.
1.1 Statement of the Problems
Pubic environmental concerns have increased against the agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, which are viewed as a major source of environmental pollution. And also there are thousand of different spray nozzles to choose from. If the incorrect nozzle is choosen for pesticide application then the following problems could arise.
Corrosion, Clogging, Caking, Mechanical damage, Incorrect assembly, Low flow rate
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The aims of this project is to construct a patternator in order to determine the above characteristics.
Objectives: The objective of this project is to determine the nozzle discharge characteristic such as:
(i) Application rate
(ii) Nozzle cone angle
(iii) Width of coverage and
(iv) Spray pattern
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study to the chemical applicator is to enable the applicator select nozzle that will provide the proper application rate within the recommended range of pressure locate nozzles so that coverage will be uniform, regulate the pressure to give proper nozzles discharge rate and spray pattern, and Regulate and maintain ground speed for applying the correct amount of pesticides.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
This project is limited by construction of a patternator to determine the nozzle characteristics such as
i) Application rate
ii) Nozzle cone angle
iii) Width of coverage and
iv) Spray pattern.
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