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1.1 Background to the Study
Waste is defined as materials of water ,semi water or liquid character that the possessor no longer considers of sufficient use to keep (Gilpin, 1976).The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation ( 2007 ) also defined wastes in simple words as any discarded (abandoned or considered waste-like) materials. There are different types of waste: municipal waste (including household and commercial waste), industrial waste (including manufacturing), hazardous waste, construction and demolition waste, mining waste, waste from electrical and electronic equipments, biodegradable municipal waste, packaging waste, and agricultural waste. Water wastes can be water, liquid, and semi-water or containerized gaseous material. Also, there are various sources of waste: residential, industrial, commercial, institutional, construction and demolition waste; municipal services manufacturing process, agriculture. For the purpose of this study, we shall be looking at sewage, which is a form of waste in water form.
Sewage (or household wastewater or metropolitan wastewater) is a kind of wastewater that is created from a group of individuals. It is described by volume or rate of stream, physical condition, substance and lethal constituents, and its bacteriologic status (which creatures it contains and in what amounts). It comprises for the most part of grey water (from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and garments washers), black water (the water used to flush toilets, joined with the human waste that it flushes away); cleansers and cleansers; and bathroom tissue (less so in locales where bidets are broadly utilized rather than paper).
Sewage as a rule goes from a building's pipes either into a sewer, which will convey it somewhere else, or into an on location sewage office (of which there are numerous sorts). Regardless of whether it is joined with surface spillover in the sewer relies upon the sewer outline (sterile sewer or conwaterated sewer). Actually, notwithstanding, that most wastewater delivered all inclusive stays untreated causing far reaching water contamination, particularly in low-salary nations: A worldwide gauge by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater created is discharged into the earth untreated. In numerous creating nations the greater part of household and mechanical wastewater is released with no treatment or after essential treatment as it were.
The term sewage is these days viewed as a more seasoned term and is in effect increasingly supplanted by "wastewater". By and large American English utilization, the expressions "sewage" and "sewerage" mean a similar thing. In American specialized and expert English use, "sewerage" alludes to the framework that passes on sewage
Cities are regarded as the most efficient agents of production (Hardoy, Mitlin and Satherthwaite, 2001). This population increase compounds the problems of water waste management. Worse still, government agencies responsible for managing water wastes, especially in urban areas are either nonexistent or ineffective.
Urban land use becomes complex as the city grows in population and physical size and so does the water waste generation increase in volume and varieties. Urban land uses vary from residential, commercial, industrial, institutional; and others, with each category generating its own peculiar type of water waste. However, residential land use constitutes the single most important generator of water waste in Nigeria urban areas (Adegoke, 1990). Because of the complexity of the household wastes, the socio-economic structure of the urban population becomes a major determinant of the spatial structure of water waste problems in our cities. Uwadiegwu (2003) in a study noted that the quantity of municipal water waste produced depends upon the living standard of the residents, urbanization and industrialization.
Okoye (2004) identified household size, income level, level of technological advancement and socio-economic status as factors that affect the quantity of water waste generation, but however, noted that a single factor may not on its own constitutes a difference in the quantity of waste generated by a household. Afon (2005), in a study of waste generation in Oyo State, Nigeria, discovered that as education, income and social status increase, per capita waste generation declines. This, he explained is partly influenced by the differences in employment/livelihood pattern in the area.
It is common for most of the water waste generated in urban areas to be collected and dumped indiscriminately within or on sites outside the city without site preparation. Sule, (2001), however, observes that the type of waste disposal method adopted in any particular area depends largely on the prevailing local conditions such as availability of open space, accessibility and attitude of the people. From a global perspective Ali et al (1999) reiterates that disposal practice vary from city to city and country to country. As a panacea, Dung-Gwon and Magaji (2007) stressed that enforcement of waste management legislation is required as a proper policy and planning framework for waste management. Urbanization directly contributes to waste generation, and unscientific waste handling causes health hazards and urban environment degradation.
Nigeria has undergone a rapid urbanization during the past fifty years. The numbers of urban dwellers are expected to double between 1987 and 2015 (Ogwueleka, 2004). Urbanization implies the expansion of slum areas and the creation of new ones. Population growth intensifies the pressure on urban infrastructure in many cities in Nigeria that are already overburdened with the provision of urban services. Most cities lack the resources to meet the demand for services such as water, sanitation and water waste management. The insufficiency of services results in a deterioration of the urban environment in the form of air, water and land pollution that poses risks to human health and the environment. Many municipalities see water waste management as a problem of equipment, particularly how to obtain and maintain technologically advanced compactor trucks, hydraulic−compressor containers, and transportable containers and transport vehicles. In developing countries, with insufficient technical services, spare parts and maintenance budgets, when such technically sophisticated equipment breaks down, the entire system fails. The waste generated by a community reflects its way of life, its wealth and its culture. Some communities use and discard great quantities of paper, others throw organic materials away. Restaurants dispose of quantities of food that is still fresh but however, it might be very valuable to the owner of animals. Thus, what is waste to one person might be a valuable resource for others.
Water waste disposal is the disposal of normally water or semi-water materials, resulting from human and animal activities that are useless, unwanted, or hazardous. Water wastes typically may be classified as sewage treatment waters, industrial water waste, mining waste and agricultural wastes.
Municipal water waste disposal is a major concern in developing countries like Nigeria as high poverty, population growth, and high urbanization rates combine with ineffectual and under-funded governments to hamper efficient management of wastes (Cointreau 1982, Doan 1998). In most cities and large towns in Nigeria, water waste is not only heaped in huge quantities on refuse dumps but also thrown and made to lie around in piles in the street and in small illegal dump on any piece of unused land. Most third world countries have worst cases than industrialised countries which have the money and technical know now and public attitudes to control and manage their waste to some degree.
Considerable percentage of urban waste in Nigeria is deposited on either the roads, or roadsides, unapproved dumpsites, in waterways drainage system, or in open sites, which adversely affect environmental friendliness. In fact, water waste poses various threats to public health and adversely affects flora and fauna as well as the environment especially when it is not appropriately collected and disposed (Geraldu, 1995). Thus, the adjacent areas including high ways, farmlands, forest plantation, etc, are encroached upon which has a toll on biodiversity conservation (Hardy and Seatterwaite, 1992). Municipal water waste management (MSWM) refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resources recovery and disposal of water waste in urban areas. The goals of municipal water waste management are to promote the quality of the urban environment, generate employment and income, and protect environmental health and support the efficiency and productivity of the economy.
The volume of water waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to improve on the financial and technical resources needed to parallel this growth. Per capita rate of MSW production in Nigeria is about 49million kg per year (Cyget, 2002; Aboyade, 2004) and the main components of these wastes are organic materials, paper, plastics/rubbers, textiles, and metals (Ojolo, 2004). According to All Sites Engineering (Ogwueleka, 2009), 320kg of waste is generated per month in Kaduna state. The main purpose of sewage management is to minimize the adverse effects on the environment. The steps involved are collection, disposal and utilization of sewage.
Collection of waste includes gathering the waste, transporting it to a centralized location, and then moving it to the site for disposal. The collected waste is then separated into hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Before the final disposal of the water wastes, it is processed to recover the usable resources and to improve the efficiency of the water waste disposal system. The main processing technologies are compaction, incineration, and manual separation. The appropriate sewage disposal method has to be selected, keeping in view the objectives of economic viability and not constituting a health hazard. It should also not cause adverse environmental effects or result in unpleasant sight, odour and noise.
Improper handling of the sewage is a health hazard for the workers who come in contact with the waste. The environment is also affected in that if water wastes are not treated properly, decomposition and putrefaction may take place, causing land and water pollution when the waste products percolate down into the underground water resources. The organic water waste during decomposition may generate obnoxious odours. Stray dogs and birds may sometimes invade garbage heaps and may spread it over the neighbourhood causing unhygienic and unhealthy surroundings. Municipal water waste management is a major responsibility of State and Local Government environmental agencies. The agencies are charged with the responsibility of handling, employing and disposing of water waste generated.
Also, at the core of the problems of sewage management or disposal system are the absence of adequate policies, enabling legislation, and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and are poorly implemented. Public enlightenment programs lacked the needed coverage, intensity, and continuity to correct the apathetic public attitude towards the environment. Up to now the activities of the State environmental agencies have been hampered by poor funding, inadequate facilities and human resources, inappropriate technology, and an inequitable taxation system. Successful sewage management in Nigeria will require a holistic program that will integrate all the technical, economic, social, cultural, and psychological factors that are often ignored in water waste programs.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the volume of wastes generated daily in the country. This is due to a number of reasons including the increasing population growth rate, increasing urbanisation, industrialisation and economic growth. In addition, many urban areas of Nigeria lack effective waste management systems. As a result, most urban households resort to the haphazard dumping of water wastes. (Agunwamba, Egbuniwe and Ogwueleka 2003).
Agunwamba (1998) stated that the problem of waste management in Nigeria is due to the absence of public policy, enabling legislation and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Appropriate policy and institutional mechanism for implementation of waste management strategies are critical for sustainable waste management. Where the policy is poor or the public is not properly sensitized or there are no proper enforcement of laws and regulations, waste management is a problem or challenge.
Urban sewage management in Nigeria is constitutionally the responsibility of the third tiers of government, that is, the local government council. Financial, material and human resources that have been committed to waste management by this tier of government have not matched this responsibility. This is evident by the poor management of many landfill sites and soil and groundwater pollution due to often mixing of household, industrial and toxic waste (UNEP, 2000). In view of the environmental situation described above in many urban areas, many Nigerian cities have been described as dirty, unsanitary, and aesthetically displeasing in the world (Mabogunje, 1996). It is evident that management of water waste remains a key issue to be addressed in this country.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to determine the strategies for effective sewage disposal system in Nigeria. The study has the following objectives, to:
i. Characterize the current municipal sewage (quantity and characteristics) in the study area.
ii. Assess the functionality of the existing institutional structure(s) for sewage management in the study area.
iii. Develop an organogram of municipal waste management in the study area.
1.4 The Scope of the Study
This study focused majorly selected locations; Hayin Dogo, Samaru new extension, Tagwae engine and Danraka. Other final dumpsites such as the ones situated in Zango, Bassawa and Bomo road were also looked into and a better way of managing them will be recommended. Data on the characteristics of wastes of these dumpsites were collected. The volume of dirt in Samaru is overwhelming. The roads and drainages are littered with different kinds of waste like carrier bags (paper and plastic; which is like 80% of the wastes in Samaru) ,rags, yard sweepings, charcoals, pieces of water, cans of food and drinks alike, sachet water bags, cattle and human faeces to mention but a few.
1.5 Justification of the Study
The wastes in Samaru spoil the aesthetics of Samaru, especially as an academic environment. The major reason for this is poor waste management. Waste management is an important and integral part of our society and therefore needs to be acknowledged as one of the few things that may help to preserve the beauty and splendour of Samaru, Zaria, for future generations. Waste generation increases with population expansion and economic development. Improperly managed water waste poses a risk to human health and the environment. Uncontrolled dumping and improper waste handling causes a variety of problems, including contaminating water, attracting insects and rodents, and increasing flooding due to blocked drainage canals or gullies. In addition, it may result in safety hazards from fires or explosions.
Improper waste management also increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which contribute to climate change. Planning for and implementing a comprehensive program for waste collection, transport, and disposal—along with activities to prevent or recycle waste—can eliminate or at least reduce these problems. This study examines the need for effective municipal water waste management in Samaru in order to achieve a clean and hygienic environment. Samaru residents especially those who live in Hayin Dogo, Danraka, and Samaru market battle with refuse dumps situated in drainages, road networks, along the streets, as well as adjacent to residential buildings
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