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1.0 Background of the Study
Nigeria is endowed with immense physical and human resources diversiﬁed over various ecosystems which are deﬁned on the basis of vegetational zones as well as drainage, soil and land resource systems (Mabogunje, I998) In recent decades however, most of these ecological niches have experienced pressures from uncontrolled socioeconomic activities, putting land, air, water, forest and animal species to widespread deterioration and greater risk of abuse. Apart from environmental degradation arising from the modiﬁcation of the structure of the ecosystems through frequent bush burning, overgrazing, wildlife poaching, mining, industrialization, rural development and settlement schemes, the production of waste and the generally low level of environmental sanitation are the most noticeable and which affect the greater number of people and their environment.
Sanitation is a French coinage ‘sanitas’ – meaning health. Thus, environmental sanitation can be taken to mean a process of making the environment healthy, hygienic and aesthetic.
Also, the National sanitation of USA defines sanitation “As a way of life”. It is the quality of living that is expressed in the clean home, the clean farm, the clean business, the clean neighborhood and the clean community. Being the way of life, it must come from within the people; it is nourished by knowledge and growing as an obligation and an ideal in human relation (John and Steven, 1998).
Furthermore, the World Health Organization sees environmental sanitation as the control of all factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his physical developmental health and survival. Within the parlance of this discuss, the definition of Environmental Sanitation (ES) by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), USA, is quite appropriate as it sees environmental sanitation as the quality of living the status of living where every second, minute, hour, week and day counts in the home workplaces, neighborhood and in the community at large to making the places sanitary, healthy, hygienic and aesthetic (WHO, 1971).
In recent years, the level of public concern and response of the government about environmental waste pollution has increased. The challenge of containing this problem was also endorsed by ‘Agenda 21' document of the I992 Earth summit on environment and development. Chapter 28 of the document particularly recognized the vital role of local authorities as leader and facilitator of sustainable development, not only because many of the environmental problems and solutions have their root in local activities but also because they formulate local environmental policies and regulation and assist in implementing national and sub-national policies (UNCED, l992). As the level of governance closest to the people in Nigeria, local authorities have been the medium through which community decision-making and actions particularly relating to the regulatory and protective aspects are undertaken. Despite this, the despoliation of the environment in various forms is often explained from the view- point that local community has less concern for environmental sanitation than their urban counterparts (Omuta, I988).
It has also been assumed that the concern with environmental -quality is a recent phenomenon and that existing environmental policies at the local level have been accidental being formulated and implemented mainly from urban considerations (Egwurube, I983; kporukpo, 1983; Oyesiltu, I986). in this article, an analysis of Nigeria's developing planning and policy documents over years conﬁrms that there have indeed been environmental sanitation and waste management policies and programmes at the local level. While highlighting the constraints to their implementation, the paper also makes some suggestions that should be considered by local authorities in establishing environmental policies and regulations for their communities toward attaining the goal of environmentally sound and sustainable development.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Ethically, the beauty of any environment lies on its good sanitary condition. This is so because, when an environment is clean the lives of citizenry are not threatened by illnesses and diseases. Proper refuse disposal management involves the dumping of wastes (solid, liquid or gaseous) from our homes, industries and public outﬁts for example hotels, hospitals and schools etc at a speciﬁc place or in government provided containers and the control and removal of refuse from places where they can cause hazards to a place where they are less hazardous to public health.
Tudun Wada metropolis presents a ghastly picture; the neglect of ﬁlled refuse bins in recent time has its effect on the inhabitants. Many areas around the homes are littered with domestic refuse sewage waste, garbage and other wastes from industrial operations. Industrial operations are characterized by the generation of large volume of wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Some of these wastes are toxic with negative impacts on our environment, land, water and air.
To ensure a clean and safe environment, the Kaduna State Government established Kaduna Environmental Protection Authority (KEPA) to monitor the environmental quality and to ensure a refuse-free environment. However, despite the government efforts at making the environment clean in Tudun Wada in Kaduna Metropolis, people seem to be careless about their environment. Despite the provision of refuse receptacles by the government many people still prefer dumping refuse at places they considered convenient to them. People seem not to be aware of the interrelatedness of dirty environment and diseases. Victims of environment related disease like malaria fever, typhoid fever, dysentery and others seem to be on the increase.
Indiscriminate refuse dump affects quality of water and air of which the people seem not to be aware. Public Educational Programmes that enlighten the public on the health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump are almost non-existent. Mass media seem not to be doing enough to create awareness about implications of indiscriminate refuse dump. It was against this background that i embarked on this research to appraise the public health awareness of health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump in Tudun Wada in Kaduna metropolis.
1.3 Statement of Research Question
The need to address these problems prompts the following questions;
1. Do the inhabitants of Tudun Wada aware of the implications of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment?
2. What is the level of efficiency of Tudun Wada urban waste control and management?
3. Are the methods used by government adequately creating awareness about the health implications of poor environmental sanitation in Tudun Wada kaduna Metropolis?
4. What ways could the environmentalist/ policy makers help in changing human behavior and responses to environmental options that will promote environmental sanitation.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to evaluate the environmental sanitation in Tudun Wada Kaduna South Local Government Area.
The speciﬁc goals of this research are to:
1. To ﬁnd out whether inhabitants of Tudun Wada are aware of the implications of indiscriminate waste disposal in their environment
2. To evaluate the level of efficiency in the control and management of urban waste in Tudun Wada Kaduna Metropolis.
3. To investigate whether the methods used by government are adequately creating awareness about the health implications of poor environmental sanitation in Tudun Wada Kaduna Metropolis.
4. To identify various ways the environmentalist/ policy makers could help in changing human behaviour and responses to environmental options that will promote promote environmental sanitation.
1.5 Scope of Study
The study covers Tudun Wada community which is located in Kaduna South Local Government Area in Kaduna state, the Northern part of Nigerian. The community is comprised of many dense and clustered settlements with an estimated population of approximately 269,680 inhabitants According to the 2006 national population census. The scope of this study surrounds the whole settlements of Tudun Wada community and their various level of environmental sanitation.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The collection of refuse is irregular and inefﬁcient in Tudun Wada due to insufficient funding of collection of refuse exercise and intervention worker employed are not paid their salaries when due. Litter and refuse often accumulated along roads and public places, creating breeding grounds for mosquitoes, ﬂies, cockroaches and rodents responsible for the spread of many diseases. The vehicles used were open trucks, which exposed their putrefying load for all to see and smell as they moved through the city. Drains and rivers were choked with refuse and there was open burning of waste everywhere. The result reveals whether the publics are aware of the health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump. It also shows why governmental efforts may not be enough in solving environmental problem and why individual must be involved.
Governments at all levels are involved in refuse disposal. Local, state, and federal governments each control a speciﬁc part of the process. Refuse disposal is generally seen as a municipal responsibility because of the landfill and recycling component. While that is generally true, the citizenship evokes love for and commitment to a state that is why what is expected of the citizenry is a positive contribution to the development, progress and wellbeing of the community in which they reside. Though this obligation is more or less moral or attitudinal in outlook, but a clean environment will impact positively on Tudun Wada socio politico economic wellbeing of the citizens.
The study would be utilized by the government at State and the Local levels through their various Ministries like, Ministry of Environment, Education, Health, and Information. It will be beneﬁcial for these ministries in the area of policy formulation, most especially in the area of educating public in the schools and out-of- school. It will assist them when formulating laws that will promote human health and protect the environment. The citizenry will also beneﬁt greatly from this study, as the study will reveal how a person’s carefree attitude about the environment can be costly not only to himself but others. Non-governmental organization (NGO’s) in the areas of health and environment will also beneﬁt. This study will guide them in the areas of production and distribution of educational materials to the public.
The information will go a long way in helping the teachers, most especially Adult educator, environmental educators and health educators will also beneﬁt from the study in such a way that it would help them to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment to the school public. Media houses and others who are charged with the responsible of awareness creation will also beneﬁt from the study. A workable solid waste management strategy for Tudun Wada community becomes dependent on a long term strategy for all citizens.
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