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CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.0          BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Since the time when humans lived in caves and enjoyed the benefits of stable temperatures and natural ventilation with zero mortgage and environmental impact, we have been refining our use of resources to provide improved shelter. Until very recently in human history, this refinement occurred within sustainable principles because it was dependent on available resources and technologies. These limitations mean that solutions had to be effective yet work with the environment and available materials rather than transforming and dominating them. With green architecture the two objectives meet with as little compromise between protecting the earth and meeting human needs.

Man has been affected by climate and its influence over the earth. Today, with the help of new climate technology, architects and builders are making use of climate-responsive architecture and its benefits in helping to keep humans comfortable. Climate responsive architecture takes advantage of free energy in the form of heat and light. Each region of the world employs its own techniques and designs in its buildings that are best suited to that particular region. (Turner, 2003)

A hotel is a commercial establishment that provides paid lodging, food and other services to the public, usually on a short term basis. Thus, it provides the basic accommodation for visitors.

The hotel and tourism industry should design hotels and accommodation that will make important environmental improvements to its structure in order to minimize its impact on

 the environment. Buildings that need fewer resources and materials to build, occupy and maintain, and are more comfortable and healthy to live and work in with minimum adverse impact to the environment.

STATEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEMS.

A hotel can be said to wear two faces. The paying customer sees only the “front of the complex” and this must be all he desires- a wish fulfillment, an ago blinder, a status symbol and the promise of great delight.

The “back of the hotel complex “is all that makes things happen. These include the kitchens, stores, service, etc. this area must be laid out with two paramount objectives: control and efficiency. Control is important because pilfering is a real danger while inefficiency results in time wastage and reduction in productivity.

When a guest enters the hotel lobby, he should be over whelmed by a feeling of serenity or enchantment or revulsion,- but never confusion. The registration desk for instance and the elevators should be immediately apparent. The main administrative area usually backs up to the desk. The restaurants, bars and other such spaces should be either visible from or well indicated in the lobby area.,

I .the exploitation of the site configuration and characteristics in the location of facilities

1.                  Circulation (vertical and horizontal), Ie. The problem created by the different directional movements.

iii. The architecture of the proposed hotel complex must be attractive. The design elements must inspire and evoke feelings among the guests.

1.                  The proper grouping and organization of functions in the whole site to arsid intrusive noise.

1.                  Provision of adequate parking facilities for both the staff and other users.

1.2 THE PROJECT AIMS

The aim of this project is to produce a design proposal for a five-star hotel development at Emene, Enugu state. Also to attract foreign and local investors to establish part of their business in the state capital (Enugu) and Nigeria as a whole

THE PROJECT OBJECTIVE

The research will pursue the following objective:

Assessing the development of the hotel industry in Enugu state in particular and Nigeria in general.

Determining the socio- economic implications of hotel development in Enugu state

Designing a hotel capable of catering for national and international guests in their diversity of needs, food, lodging, services, recreation, etc.

It should be capable of housing meetings, exhibitions, seminars, connections or business transactions and should meet the internationally accepted standard for five star hotels as much as possible.

It should strive to project the rich cultural heritage of Enugu state in particular and the Nigeria in general

It should solve inadequacy of accommodation supply, since newly created state capitals and increasingly short of accommodation in hotel services.

It should be able to accommodate those people on small or big business trips with informed taste, who do not like the hustle and bustle of the city center, but rather prefer the reserved atmosphere of a hotel and more freedom from the congested city environment, for instance those on relaxing weekend which may also need a relaxing atmosphere like a hotel.

It should not only help to make the  economy of the state grow but also will add as a tourist attraction  to the capital city of Enugu and many other factors that cannot be exhausted in this synopsis .

THE PROJECT MOTIVATION

This project topic has it genesis in my desire to do an intensive, demanding, but rewarding topic for the thesis project.

The emergence of Governor Sullivan Chime as the executive governor of the state from 2007 has brought a face-lift for the state as well as an attendant influx of personnel for both business and state affairs mere catalyst for this project. Such projects will thus solve this problem of inadequate hotel accommodation, boost potentials for the state and provide an international business convection centre for both local and foreign businessmen. It is expected that the commercial cities of Enugu and neighboring Abia will boost its patronage since there is no existing five star hotel in Enugu.

THE PROJECT SCOPE

This thesis report looks at the universal principles of hotel design and uses this as a foundation for the design of a five-star hotel for Enugu state. The study and analysis of local and international hotels were made and these helped me see the effect of theoretical design principles of life projects.

The project shall be a five- star hotel of international standard. The hotel shall have about 250-300 bedrooms with a high proportion of double bedded guest rooms together with interconnecting suites. The hotel shall be capable of catering for international and national guests in their diversity of needs.

Limitations encountered in the course of the study of this research include:

Paucity of material on the chosen thesis topic.

The problem of procuring the government station layout plan at Enugu the capital

Transportation and the fee to procure the plan from the plan office.

The unco-operative attitude of some of the hotel management visited in taking of interior and exterior photographs of their hotel facilities.

Bad weather conditions an some certain days of visit which did not make for a very good photograph.

Time factor was also a serious obstacle. The time limit set for the research and preparation of such a complex text not enough for all that needed to be done.

However, diligent use has been made of the available information and collected data. Not minding the time constraint, the researcher was able to complete this work.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research procedure in this thesis project is mainly deduction analysis- ie, it involved collection of data from the various sources, that are deemed relevant to give me the information needed in this thesis project. Some of these procedures are as follows.

Site \field visits and observation were used directly in matters concerning the analysis of the project site. Photographs were taken in this aspect so as to obtain documented site information that was needed.

The use of semi-standardized interview surveys as was adopted, whereby schedules of questions were presented to respondents. This was used particularly to determine guest profile characteristics and references. Oral interviews we applied also, to obtain necessary information on an informal basis.

Literature review: this involved mostly using the library in getting other information that will be of relevance to the thesis project. Some published and unpublished work was consulted so as to get the necessary data needed for this work.

In order to produce a befitting and sustainable design for the five star hotel, researches were conducted by the use of questionnaires, face-to-face interview. Visiting of similar existing building and consultations from textbooks, journals and internet facilities.


CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

                    What is Green Architecture?

Roaf,   Fuentes   and   Thomas   (2001)   defines   green   architecture   as   ―the   creation   or restructuring of buildings so that they have a minimal impact on the environment. Green Architecture is not a style, trend or a vernacular and neither is it new. It is a climatically, geographically and culturally appropriate way of architecture and building, combining the best of both old and new technology.‖

According to U S Environmental Protection Agency (2011) green building is ―a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.‖

McLaren (2009) reports that buildings account for 72 percent of electricity consumption, 39 percent of energy use, 38 percent of all carbon-dioxide emissions, 40 percent of raw materials used, 30 percent of waste output and 14 percent of potable water consumption worldwide. Green building or architecture is intended to minimize consumption and waste while maximizing your comfort and quality of life.

Typical building construction, use, and demolition, as well as the manufacturing of building materials, contribute significantly to environmental problems. Green building also has tangible economic and public health benefits. These include lower operating costs via reduced energy and water utility bills, and reduced maintenance and replacement costs due


to greater durability of materials. The use of non-toxic materials in construction is especially important in protecting children from respiratory and other diseases. (Tree Media Group, 2004)

The earth‘s ecological condition is becoming increasingly unsafe. The consumption rate of natural resources is simply unsustainable. Therefore there is a need to build smarter and the only way to do so is to utilize green architecture.

Green architecture is also known as sustainable architecture, Sustainable development, eco- design, eco-architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental architecture, natural architecture. The term ecological, green and sustainable are often used to describe environmentally responsive designs. But each term is heavily influenced with social and political implications. The variation of the terms ecological, sustainable and green is negligible. They have the same primary aim and objectives. So, whatever a building is called from the three words is the same.

                      History of Green Architecture

BStone (2011) wrote the following:

The history of green building dates back much further than the 1970's, it was in the midst of the industrial revolution that Henri Becquerel first witnessed the transformation of solar energy into electrical energy, known as photovoltaic power. However, in the late 1800's to early 1900's, a number of solar power plants were built to utilize the sun's energy for steam power. Then, in the 1950's, solar energy was used on an extremely small-scale, making way for the solar panel solution twenty years later.


During the energy crisis of the 1970's, green building moved from research and development to reality. Builders and designers were looking for a way to reduce the reliance of buildings and homes on fossil fuels. Solar panels were used to make more environmentally friendly homes, although only in small numbers due to high initial costs.

In the 1980s came the next big shock – climate change. It was then that the rates of depletion in the ozone layer and the increase in greenhouse gases and global warming became apparent. (Roaf, Fuentes and Thomas, 2001)

During this transition period, designers and consumers started wondering, if so


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