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This     thesis     titled    “English-based     loan     words     in     Etuno    Language”

is a documentation and analysis of some English-based loan words in Etuno language.

The study is propelled by the following observations:

(a)        that a large part of the vocabulary of the Etuno Language are loan words from

other languages particularly the English Language and the Yoruba Language.

(b)        that these loan words are basically as a result of the need for new designations.

(c)        that these loan words have been nativized and are generally used by the Etuno

speakers. The work is therefore aimed at finding out the extent to which the Etuno

Language has borrowed from the English Language and analyzing how the loan words

undergo such phonological changes in the course of nativizing them. The source of data

for the research is primary source which involves the researcher’s intuitive knowledge of

the language and information elicited from word list. The researcher discovered that

there are very many English loan words in the Etuno Language and that in the course of

nativizing these loan words, they (the loan words) experienced adjustments in line with

the morpho-phonemic rules of the Etuno Language.




This chapter gives a general background to the study. A study cannot be carried

out on any language without the knowledge of the history of its speakers. This chapter

will therefore give a brief account of the history of the Etuno speaking people, their early

contact with the Yoruba language and the English language. The chapter will also

contain the statement of research problem, research questions, the aims and objectives of

the study, its justification and significance; and the scope of the study.


Spoken language is a purely human activity. It is central to human life. Without

language, there will be no interaction, n

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