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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The origin of mass education in the north started in the late 1940s to early 1950s when the first bold step was taken with the establishment of the Northern Regional literacy Agency (NORLA) with head quarters in Zaria. The main objectives of the Agency was to raise the literacy level of northern Nigeria populace, hence it started with a vigorous campaign against illiteracy (YakidaJaluki).
The Agency served as a resources center for planning and material development. It received active support and cooperation of the regional government under the late premier, Alhaji sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto who was personally in the fore front of the campaigners. He was doggedly followed by his ministers, the provincial commissioners, together with the Emirs, and chiefs.
As part of the activities of the Northern Regional literacy Agency (NORLA), it trained selected personnel as public enlightenment campaigners and posted them to various strategic locations all over the region. It also established basic literacy and material resources such as the primers for the delivery of adult literacy in the defunct northern Nigeria (Yahaya 1994 p.19).
However, the 1976 states creation, gave rise to the breaking down of the former northern Nigeria in to six states as Northwestern, north central, Northeastern, Benue, plateau, Kano and kwara, and this resulted to the fall in the activities of NORLA. Adult education was relegated to the background in favor of universal primary Education (UPE) at unbelievable colossal sums of money with little achievement *(Yahaya 1994 p.19). In 1976 the Peoples Redemption Party (PRP) government with its philosophy of redemption in Kano state acted as a messiah.
After studying the lapses and crime committed against adult literacy, the new government appointed a high powered committee to work out the system to redeem adult education as a whole from the near total collapse it suffered. It was realized than that, in order to succeed, adult education programmes must be rescued from the lethargic nature of local governments and steep bureaucracies of the ministries which gave it little attention.
In April, 1980, by an act of the state house of assembly, the first autonomous Agency was established by the Kano state Government which was composed of Adult Education unit of the Ministry of Education and the Adult education Department of the local governments in the state. Later in 1986, the Bauchi state founded its own Agency. While the rest of the state that were in existence established their Agencies when the federal Government,
through the Directors of food, Roads and rural infrastructures (DFRRI) and later the Directorate for social mobilization (MAMSER) provided some funds for literacy and requested states which desired to benefit from it, to establish the agencies and extend the activities up to the local governments.
The Kebbi state however is part of the state of the age, but in the year 1991 the federal government of Nigeria created more state out of which Kebbi featured, with the organizational set up. Similarly, the activity of the agency is extended to various strategic locations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is now clear to various levels of government in the developing countries including Nigeria that the rate of development in any country rely on the literacy attainment of adult, to this effect, the federal, states and local governments in Nigeria vested the task of enlightening and
campaigning against illiteracy on different bodies such as the national commission for Mass literacy. Adult and non formal education, state ministries of education, the Agencies for mass literacy, and the nongovernmental organizations (NGO). This study is design to examine the role of the agency for education programmes in Zuru Metropolis
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research was to undertake a study on the development of the agency with regards to its role in the development of Adult education programmes in Zuru metropolis. Similarly, the study looked at the problems affecting the Agency in its attempts to discharging its programmes particularly in Zuru metropolis. Attempts was also made in the research concerning the possible solution to ameliorating the problems.
Prior to the establishment of the agency, there were of course other bodies like the containing education division of the ministry of education which had its responsibility the provisions of Adult Education programmes in the whole state. With the establishment of the agency, there were considerable changes in adult education practices. It is therefore the purpose of this study to have taken at the development obtained there is with the inception of the agency. That is to say the part it played in promotion adult education progrmames. It was infact assumed that there would be a remarkable difference and improvement in the progrmames as compared to what it used to be under the previous bodies responsible for the operation.
To carry out this analysis, the study looked at activities of adult education in Zuru metropolis before the agency was established in the state. i.e. the extent to which the agency progress over time and the problems that
bridled it as well as the techniques to over-coming such problems. And to be able to determine the development that obtained from the inception of the agency the study would look at the agency’s aims and objectives and programems like wise.
Similarly, for this purpose reference was made to the programmes of the agency that were conducted in the Zuru metropolis. It was the outcomes of this analysis that will help to know the extent to which the study make a significant effort or otherwise in the development of adult education programmes in the state government.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the role of the Agency for mass education in the promotion of Adult education programmes in Zuru metropolis?
ii. What are the problems affecting the agency for mass Education in an effort to undertaking their programmes?
iii. How could the problems affecting the agency be over come?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of any study among other thing is the provision or extension of knowledge and offer suggestions on the way to better management of the affairs.
Education is known to be an instrument, but development could only be superficially achieved when the when the vast majority of people are literate in places like Kebbi state where there is education backwardness and also a wider gap between those who are not the question of bridging the gap becomes in editable, the alternative of educating the vast number of illiterates in the area is therefore through adult education programmes and there were several attempts made by various successive government to educate the mass of people, and this is perhaps due to poor management and the treatment
experienced by adult Education sectors and the type of marginalization received from their mother ministries who give very little or even no recognition to the agency’s role or even the absence of political will.
The agency for mass education was created too by another government to completely wipe out illiteracy from the state. It is the significance of this study to extend knowledge on the role played by the Agency for mass education Kebbi state in developing adult education in Zuru metropolis area since the inception of the agency in 1991.
The study will also brought to the light the problems hindering the agency from achieving its desired goals and objectives, likewise the solutions to such problems will be made available.
1.6 THE SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to adult education practices in Zuru metropolis, prior to the establishment of the agency i.e. looking at adult education before 1990 when the state agency was established attempts will also be made by the study to look at the existing trends and problems bridling the agency and the possible ways to ameliorating the said problems.
The study also looked at adult education with the establishment of the agency in 1991 to date in Zuru metropolis.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. The Agency for Mass Education: An organizationestablished under section 3 of the law establishing it and knows as the agency for mass education. It is charged with the responsibility of planning and
organizing adult education programmes for the purpose of eliminating illiteracy nationwide.
ii. Success: This implies the achievements of adulteducation programmes as organized by the agency such programmes include
a. Literacy programmes
b. Women programmes
c. Workers education
d. GCE remedial programmes
e. Vocational training programmes
iii. Aims and Objectives: This implies reasons behindestablishment of the agency as contained in the law establishing it.
iv. Problems: This refers to the short comings of the agencyin an attempt to achieving its aim and objectives.
a. Lack of political will
b. Absence of materials
c. Shortages personnel’s
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