1.1 Background of the study
The issue of drug abuse is a well-known phenomenon being condemned by all and sundry including the federal, state and local government through the mass media. It is a common thing among adolescents and even adult to abuse drugs of various types. Drug abuse is the use of illegal drugs, or the misuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Some of the most commonly abused drugs are alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, methaqu alone, opium alkaloids, synthetic opioids, and heroin. Use of these drugs may lead to criminal penalty in addition to possible physical, social and psychological harm, both strongly depending on local jurisdiction. Drug abuse may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction. It is also leads to physiological distortion of brain chemistry as well as the social isolation. Nwoli (1975) defined drug as “a substance that by its chemical nature affect the structure or function of the organism”. The nature and impact of drug abuse is the bone of contention of this study. It includes medicine, over the counter drugs, illegal drugs, drugs that are commonly addictive like cigarettes, food additives and pollutant. One of the principles of proper usage is that drugs should be medically prescribed and in addition the user should comply with the instruction of the prescription. However, it is known that some drug users do not always comply with the instruction and tend to use them without prescription. Both behaviors constitute either drug misuse or drug abuse respectively. Drug abuse is a situation when certain drugs are taken in short or over of the prescription dosage. Misuse of drugs can also be seen as a situation an individual applies a drug meant for a particular ailment for another type of a major social problem, particularly in the developing countries. In our contemporary society, several reasons are responsible for drug abuse among secondary school students use drugs. According to Awake! April (2003), World Health Organization (WHO) presents five basic reasons why young people might be drawn to drugs. These includes they want to fit in, they want to feel grown-up and make their own decisions, they want to relax and feel good, they want to take risk and rebel, and finally, they want to satisfy their curiosity. Some other reasons why young people indulge in drug abuse are; as stated by Okoh (1978), Oduaran (1979), Johnson (1979) is: boldness, peer pressure or friends-do-it, enjoyment of social gathering, sound sleep, sexual-prowess and performance in sports. Furthermore, the issue of academic performance is no exception to the above stated reasons. To some, the use of drugs is seen as a stimulant which energizes or enhances academic performance (Ebele, 2005). Njama (2004) posits that, despite well-known risks people continue to abuse drugs and such abuse continue to destroy lives. This is because to them drugs such as Indian hemp, cocaine, cigarette, alcoholic etc alleged to aid memory. The consequences of drug abuse are numerous and diverse. Drug abuse is hazardous, not just to those directly involved but also to the entire society. It leads to physiological distortion of brain chemistry; poor academic performance, memory loss, and for most of the deviant behavior and failure among students today, and the society at large. Not only do they constitute nuisance to the social environment, society is also deprived of the contributions they would have made to the social life. Garba (1986) expressed concern over how students’ sexually transmitted disease (STD) resorted to treating themselves indiscriminately with antibiotic. According to him, student who avoided doctor or bought antibiotic from chemist without prescription endanger their health because of the risk of buying expired drugs and abuse of such drugs. He therefore called on the federal government to enact a law banning the indiscriminate sale of some drugs including antibiotics except on prescription from a medical doctor. From the above instances of drug abuse and its attendant consequences, one is not left in doubt as to the magnitude of it concern to the nation. The issue is viewed seriously because the chief culprit and victims are the youth who are the main architects of the nation’s future. It is imperative therefore, that the war against crime in society should begin with fighting the use of hard drug by our youth as people were likely to be law abiding avoid crime if they were prevented from abusing hard drugs. It is against this background that this research is designed to examine the influence of drug abuse among secondary school students.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Students are not supposed to indulge themselves in drug abuse knowing the negative effects it poses on their academic performance such as the physiological distortion of brain chemistry, memory loss, poor academic performance and disobedience to parents and teachers. Therefore, with this idea in mind, students are expected to study without the use of drugs, and to develop good habits and behavior. It is discovered therefore that students who indulge in drug abuse have impaired their good academic performance by skipping classes, failing to complete assignments, absenteeism from school and its activities, memory loss and involvement in social vices. Therefore, the problem of this study is to identify the influence of drug abuse among secondary school students.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is the influence of drug abuse among secondary school students. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
1. To ascertain the extent to which drug abuse influences the academic performance of secondary school students.
2. To ascertain the effect of drug abuse on secondary school students academic performance
3. To find out the role of parent in curtailing drug abuse by secondary school students
4. To ascertain the relationship between drug abuse and secondary school students academic performance.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: drug abuse has effect on academic performance of secondary school students
H1: drug abuse has no effect on academic performance of secondary school students
H02: there is no significant relationship between drug abuse and secondary school students’ academic performance
H2: there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and secondary school students’ academic performance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to students, teachers and parents. It will help the parents to understand the drugs commonly abused by students in secondary schools and why they abuse them. This will help the parents adopt a better strategy in joining the fight against drug abuse among secondary school. Education administration will understand to a large extent how drug abuse has contributed to recent indiscipline and decline in students’ performance and perhaps adapt a better method to check this ugly trend. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the influence of drug abuse among secondary school students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INFLUENCE: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
DRUG ABUSE: Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
SECONDARY SCHOOL: high school (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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