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1.1      Introduction

The advent of the internet in the 1990s led to major developments in the world of communication. Hence, the introduction of social networking sites (SNSs).  Today, we celebrate its improvements ranging from education to entertainment. The evolution of the internet has led to its usage as the best medium of communication whereby two-third (2/3) of the internet world‘s population visit social networking sites (SNSs) thus serving as communication and connection tools. These networking sites are referred to as social media (Boyd and Ellison, 2007). It have many facilities on same channel like communicating, texting, images sharing , audio and video sharing , fast publishing, linking with all over world, direct connecting.

Social media exploded as a category of online discourse which enables people to create contents, share them, bookmark them and network at a prodigious rate (Jha and Bhardwaj, 2012). This has breached the gab that existed in communication where people had to rely solely on traditional methods such as letters and phone calls as a mode of getting in touch with friends and relatives. Today, communication is as easy as walking into a neighbor’s residence to deliver a piece of information or vice versa through the use of social media. Social media is fast changing the public discourse in the society and is setting trends and agenda in topics that ranges from the environment and politics to technology and the entertainment industry (Asur and Huberman, 2010).The driving factors for adoption of social media are the progressively ubiquitous access, convenience, functionality, and flexibility of social technologies (Brown, 2010; Schroeder, Minocha and Schneider, 2010). These factors have made the adoption of social media very easy and have tremendously improved mankind’s life by exposing him to different ways of creating and sharing information.

As we know, nothing interesting is ever completely one-sided, so it is for social media as it comes with both positive and negative effects. There is a correlation between social media usage and academic performance of students in schools. Technology exposes mankind to a better way of doing things. Social networking sites include: Twitter, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM) Whatsapp, Skype, Google talk, Google Messenger, Wechat, snapchat, Instagram, Linkedin, Pinteres. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends, (Asemah and Edegoh. 2012).

Research has proved the heavy presence of social media usage among students. Wiley and Sisson (2006), for instance argue that previous studies have found that more than 90% percent of tertiary school students use social networks. It is also found out that, students use social networking sites (SNSs) approximately thirty (30) minutes throughout the day as part of their daily routine life (Nicole, Charles, and Cliff, 2007).

This shows the level at which students are patronizing these sites and this may bring along both positive and negative effects on students as far as their academic performance is concerned.

To this end, the focus of this study is to examine the effect of social media on students academic performance, especially positively or negatively in their study of social studies.

1.2       Background of the Study

The world today is celebrating the improvement in communication technology which has broadened the scope of communication through information and communication technologies (ICTs). ICTs include internet, satellite, cable data transmission and computer assisted equipment (Ufuophu & Agobami, 2012).

Social media is a social structure made up of individual or organization called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationship or relationship of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. (Adeboye, 2012 cited in Asemah & Edegoh, 2012).

With the nature of the cyber world around us today and how students in it, there is growing concern on how it affect them. The internet is more than just means of seeking information, people discovered that the internet could be used to connect with other people, whether for business or commercial purpose. Make new friends, reawaken old friends and long lost relative. The emergency of social networking and social media simply the whole process as they are easier to use and navigate, their uses does not require advanced knowledge and experience of the internet and one made up of a wide array of different formats and topics this means that just every one can connect (David et al 2012).

Social media has become part of the daily life experiences for an increasing number of people, socializing via the internet has becoming an increasingly important part of young adult life. The popular image of young people is of them with their faces glued to screens while they are constantly texting, checking emails, or updating their facebook and whatsApp pages. The stereotype is that we are becoming increasingly disconnected from the world around us. The truth is that through the used of cell phones, laptops, ipods and online social network such as facebook, instagram where young people are not only staying connected with their peers but also becoming more adopt and waste their time. With so many social networking site displayed on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their home work and reading time in preference for chatting online with friends many students are now addicted to the only rave of the moment with facebook, twitter etc.

The emergence of social media as a result of advancement in technology and expansion in internet software has raise eye brows among academic on its (social media) impact on studies. Students at all levels of learning now have divided attention to studies, as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed from social media, whether this opportunities promote studies is a question that need answered. Thus, the problem this study investigates is the effect of social media on students academic performance in Social Studies, a study of selected secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

1.3       Statement of the Problems

The internet is today the most important source of information and the growing dimensions of the use of social media by students cannot be underestimated. It has been observed that students devote more attention and time to social media than they do for their studies and they cannot pass their examinations well if they do not learn (Osharive, 2015). Also, the study conducted by Maya (2015), revealed that media use contribute to lower academic performance, low self perceptions and less interest in college oriented carriers. Academic excellence plays an important role in an individual’s life; be it in the family, at social gatherings, at workplace, in an institution or even among peers. Much emphasis is placed on academic excellence because of the role it plays in an individual’s life as far as a successful life and respect is concerned in every part of the world. Due to this, many people are concerned with the ways that they can improve their academic performance (Kyoshaba, 2009). Studies have also revealed that social media affects students’ use of English. They tend to use short- handwriting to chat with friends and get used to it thereby replicating the same errors during examinations (Obi, Bulus, Adamu & Sala’at, 2012).

Today, students at all levels especially secondary level have been engaged in the use of social networking sites (SNSs). This research therefore seeks to investigate the level of engagement of students of the selected schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state into social networking sites and also determine the effect of their use on the academic work.

1.4   Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study is generally to examine the effect of social media on students academic performance in Social Studies; a study of selected secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

Specifically, the study seeks:

1-      To examine the level of student’s addiction to social media and the influence on their academic performance in Social Studies.

2-      To determine the social media network that the students are more exposed to and the influence on their academic performance in Social Studies.

3-      To ascertain how the use of social media has influenced or affected the academic performance of the students in secondary schools.

4-      Roles of parents on student’s uses of social media.

1.5       Basic Assumption

A research assumption is presumed to be true, often only temporarily or for a specific purpose, such as building a theory; here, are some common assumptions to consider:

1.      The participants will answer the interview questions in an honest and candid manner.

2.      The participants have all experienced in the same or similar phenomenon   of the study.

3.      The participants have a sincere interest in participating in the research and do not any other motives, aside the purpose of the study.

4.      Students’ addiction to social network which has both negative and positive effect to the academic performance has no significant influence on their academic performance in social studies.

1.6   Research Question

            The following research questions were raised:

1-      To what extent would student’s addiction to social network influence their academic performance?

2-      Does the social media network that the students are more exposed to influence their academic performance in Social Studies?

3-      How has the use of social media influenced the academic performance of the students in Junior Secondary schools?

4-      Does the parents plays a roles in the uses of social media of their children?

1.7      Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are generated by the researcher and will be tested I in this study:

1-      Students’ addiction to social network has no significant influence on their academic performance in Social Studies.

2-      Students’ exposure to social media network has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.

3-      Use of social media do not significantly influence the academic performance of the Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna South L.G.A of Kaduna State.

4-      Parents have no roles to play in the uses of social media of their children.

1.8      Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the teacher, parent and students. This study will help the teachers of the school to know the influence that social media has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the positive influence it has on them. The study is of significant to parent in the sense that will know the positive effect these social media usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog to their children on the usage of the social networking site.

The study will enable the students of senior secondary school to aware that, apart from the social benefits of this social networking site, using the site more than necessary will drastically affect their academic performance, it also assisting students in understanding the diversity of social media., it will provide relevance material for students and other researcher undertaking similar research.

1.9      Scope of the Study

The focus of this research work is to primarily study the effect of social media on student’s academic performance in Social Studies; A study of some selected secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area. The study will comprise of 800 students in four (5) secondary schools in Kaduna South Local Government which include;

-          Government College Secondary School, Kaduna.

-          Government Boys Secondary School, Kargi Road, Kaduna.

-          Government Girls Secondary School Maimuna Gwarzo, Kaduna.

-          Danbo International School, Kaduna.

-          Mameema Memorial School, Kaduna.

However, this study is restricted to Social Studies as one of the major subjects of study in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna state.

1.10     Limitations of the Study

A research of this nature is generally faced with problems as well as constraints in carrying the task effectively and efficiently.

In summary, in carrying out this research study, the researcher is constraint in certain areas which include:

1.      Lack of validation data or information ( that is, fact and figure)

2.      Time factor (e.g. coping with studies, place of work, family life, etc)

3.      Financial constraint (that is, inadequate fund to facilitate the research work couple with scarce resources)

4.      Lack of facilities and equipment for one on one contact

5.      Distance (that is, schools selected are far away from one another), etc.

1.11   Operational Definition of Terms

As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definition are given as the words used as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study:

Social Media: They are the form of computer mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interest, pictures and other form of expression through use of web and mobile technology.

Social Networking Sites: A website where people put information about them and can sent to other such as Facebook, whatsapp, Instagram, Skypes, We Chat etc.

Social Networking: The use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest or friends.

Media: Are all technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication, they are message communicated through a mass medium to a number of people.

Internet: It is network of the interlinked computer networking worldwide which are accessible to the public.

Electronic Mail (E-mail): This is one constituent to internet as is mostly used in sending and receiving messages on the internet. Once you have an e-mail account, you can send and receive an electronic messenger.

Blogs: Short for web log, a blog is an online journal in which pages are usually displayed in reverse chronological order.

Wikis: A wikis is ‘a collective website where any participant is allowed to  modify any page or create a new page using her Web browser.

Social bookmarking: Social bookmarking sites allow users to organize and share links to websites.

Social network sites: These have been defined as ‘web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system. Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.

Status-updates services: Also known as micro blogging services, status- update services such as Twitter allow people to share short updates about people or events and to see updates created by others.

Academic: It is concerned with studying from books as opposed by a practical work.

Students: Someone who is studying at University or secondary schools, someone who interested in a particular subject.

Social Studies: It is described as the way of life, a practice of living effectively within ones’ immediately cultural environment and the modern world at large, in other words, it is a subject that teaches moral attitude and skills that over-shadow the acquisition of fact and information.

The World Wide Web (WWW): This consist of websites connected to the internet World Wide, including the client devices (such as Computers and cellphones) that access web address/content.

Internet Protocol (IP): This is primary protocol used on the internet, developed in the 1970’s. IP is often used with transport control protocols (TCP).

Transport Control Protocols (TCP): This enables two hosts to establish a connected and exchange stream of data. It is one of the main protocols of internet suite.

Internet Exposure: This is the opportunity one has in having access or contact with internet e.g. social media.

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