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1.1 Background of the study
Job satisfaction describes the feelings attitudes or preference of individuals regarding work. It indicates how content an individual is towards his or her work. (Armstrong, 2006) defines job satisfaction as the attitudes and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favorable attitude towards the job indicate job satisfaction, Negative and unfavorable attitude indicate dissatisfaction. This study sought to determine factors influencing job satisfaction among teachers in public Secondary schools in Isoko North Sub County.
The indicators of dissatisfaction among teachers investigated included teacher commitment to work output inferred from NSCE results of the various schools, teacher population based on curriculum establishment (CBE) which show the shortage of teachers arising from poor transport network ,poor housing inadequate supply of teaching learning materials among others as noted by Orikodi,(2007), level of work place conflict and preferences for the profession. This research attempted to link the above indicators and the main factors under study which included the influence of student discipline on teacher job satisfaction, the influence of work environment on teacher job satisfaction, the influence of carrier choice and training on job satisfaction and finally the influence of students school attendance on job satisfaction among teachers in Isoko North Sub County.
The study focused on the feelings, attitudes and preferences of teachers in public secondary school in the determination of the factors. A total of two hundred and ten teachers were targeted with a sample population of 138 teachers drawn from 16 schools in the Sub County. Proportionate sampling was used in getting the samples and sample size determined using the formula by Yamane,(1967) on scientific sample size determination. Descriptive survey method was used to collect data. This study is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and supported by other theories as will be mentioned. Employee reward another component of job satisfaction is about how people are given appreciation as a return for doing something good or valuable to the organization (Armstrong, 2000). Motivation deals with ‘why’ people behave think and feel the way they do. This means motivated behaviour is usually energized, directed and sustained through rewards. The explanation for motivation integrates biological, cognitive and social influences; job satisfaction on the other hand is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. It is an affective attitude, a feeling of relative like or dislike toward something, which consist of feelings, thoughts and intentions to act. Emotions are made up of, physiological arousal and behavioral expression and involve social contexts as well as relationships. Gender differences are more likely to occur in such contexts that emphasize social roles and relationship in the workplace.
Job satisfaction is defined as the effective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work(Saari,&Judge.2004).It describes the feelings or preference of individuals regarding work. Job satisfaction is a very important component to employees in any organization (Frank & Vecera, 2008) Many researchers and administrators have noticed the importance of job satisfaction on a variety of organizational variables (Kreisman, 2002). Dissatisfied employees are likely to leave their jobs, thus understanding of employee job satisfaction and its contributing variable are important for any organization to exist and prosper (Majidi,2010). Similarly Oplatka & Mimon, (2008) noted that the principal reason as to why job satisfaction is to extensively researched is that it relates to significant association with life satisfaction (Buitendach & Dewitte, 2005), organizational commitment (Cullinah, 2005) and job performance (Buitendanch & Dewitte, 2005)
A number of motivational theories explain how rewards affect the behaviour of individuals and teams. There are in existence two types of theories: the ‘content’ and the ‘process’ approaches. The content approach is associated with authorities such as Abraham Maslow, Fredrick Herzberg and David McClelland and is needs based. They assume that all humans have definable needs (e.g. money, social life, self esteem, power, e.t.c) and that motivation in the workplace follows when these needs are satisfied. In their view, job satisfaction is usually the result of meeting these basic needs. The alternative tradition (the ‘process’ approach) starts from a rather different set of assumptions. Here, motives are neither predefined nor universal, but can be created in the workplace. Hence our actions are less determined by our needs, and more by our responses to the opportunities provided for us at work. The most influential theories here are those, which relate to goals, expectancy and equity.
A research carried out by SHRM 2007 (Society for Human Resource Professional) in USA, to top five contributors to job satisfaction were job security, communication between employees and senior management, benefits flexibility to balance work and life issues and feeling safe in the work environment. According to a study conducted by Daljeet, Manoj, & Dalvinder, (2011) on factors influencing employee job satisfaction in Cement Industry of Chhattisgarh in India found out three variables that is environmental (stress and work conditions), organizational factors (fair rewarding, promotion and opportunities) and behavioural factors (adequate authority, salary and supervisors) has a positive impact on job satisfaction.
In a research carried out by Karims, & Rodger, M. G .(2005) among lecturer in Makerere University in Uganda revealed that the lecturers were relatively satisfied with core workers behavior supervision and intrinsic facets of teaching, their potential source of dissatisfaction were remuneration, governance promotion and physical facilities. Okoth,( 2003) carried out a research survey of the factors that determine the level of job satisfaction among teachers in top ranking private schools in Nairobi; He asserts that job satisfaction is a positive state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences. She adds that job satisfaction is a collection of stories and beliefs that managers have about their jobs. She further, argues that managers who are high in job satisfaction generally love their job, feel that they are being fairly treated and believe that their jobs have many desirable features such as interesting work, good pay and job security.
A research conducted in Chuka University in Nigeria on employees’ satisfaction and work environment by Peak Network Consultants Ltd, (2011) among 50 employees which constituted of senior management, supervisory staff, teaching staff and non – teaching staff. It revealed clearly that these employees were dissatisfied with communication, it was therefore important for management to ensure smooth flow of both up – down and down – up flow of information. Regarding work environment, employees showed great dissatisfaction on different aspects including: physical working conditions and materials provided to them to perform their work. For employees to be productive, the management needs to avail the right equipment, facilities and materials for employees to feel releaved. The organization should develop clear guidelines on determining and selecting prospective employees for various training and development opportunities. Boggie,(2005) maintains that in order to provide good service, the quality of employees is critical to ensure success. It is for this reason that the area of job satisfaction be explored in order to gain a better insight thereof. This will provide executive managers with important information to enable them to stimulate greater job satisfaction amongst employees (Boggie, 2005). Based on the above arguments, the researcher will carry out a research on job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary schools in Isoko North Sub County.
Employee work performance usually involves motivations and job satisfaction that strengthen or weaken those task performances (Ngalyuka ,1985). There are different approaches to motivation, various types of motivations, as well as the factors that influence job satisfaction, which refers to attitudes of a single employee. These jobs related attitudes predispose an employee to behave in certain ways (Newstrom,& Davis, 2002). Defining motivation at work and establishing how managers can best develop it in their employees has long been a major and central topic of research for the specialists in the fields of human resource management, organizational behaviour and occupational psychology. It is a field of study characterized by the presence of large numbers of theories, vigorous debates and several distinct traditions. There is no single generally accepted answer to the question of what motivates us to work or what makes a certain job satisfying for a given individual (Redman,& Wilkinson, 2002)
A different tradition in thinking about motivation centres on the motivation of effective leadership in organizations and stresses its significance rather than the design and structural factors identified above (Lang’at, 2003). While there seems to be no definitive construct for the term ‘leadership’ most, however imply a relationship with motivation. The definition for leadership suggests that the ability to get others to follow or willingly comply is essential. At the very least, leadership can be described as a process by which it is possible to inspire others. In modern organization it is generally regarded that leadership qualities are displayed through key functions such as developing and executing the vision and mission of the organization, planning change and informing policy.
John Adair has demonstrated that the leader must be action centered (Redman, & Wilkinson, 2002). In his approach, the leader must address three areas of need: to achieve the task, to maintain the team, and to develop the individual’s needs. This is referred to as the functional approach to leadership. The task functions require the leader to achieve the objectives of the group, allocate resources, organize duties and responsibilities, control quality, manage performance and review progress. Team functions require the leader to maintain morale and build the team spirit, maintain the cohesiveness of the group, set the standards and maintain discipline and establish effective communication. Finally, individual functions involve the leader’s requirement to address the needs of individual members, dealing with personal problems, giving praise and reconciling conflicts, and finally developing the potential of each individual including facilitation of job satisfaction for the employees. Evidently, the leader of the group has influence on the individual’s input in task performance. It is for this reason that industrial psychologists use many different selection tools to pick the right person for the job. Among the most widely used personnel selection tools are application forms, psychological testes, interviews, and work sample tests (Santock, 2003)
Whereas employees put vetted and approved leaders in management position, the existence of ‘troubled’ employees whose personal problems affect their work performance is still recorded. The range of employee problems is wide and indicates lack of employees’ assistance closely woven into the system of the organization to solve corporate and personal problems (Carroll and Walton, 1997). Important aspects of job satisfaction include pay, one’s supervisor, the nature of tasks performed, an employee’s co-workers or team, and the immediate working conditions. For many people money is the main reason for working, but there are many other factors, which people take into account when deciding to take or remain in a job. Various writers on motivation ( Maslow, 1954; Macgregor, 1960) have identified non-financial influences on people’s propensity to work and to improve their performance. Some of such rewards include achievement, influences, personal growth, recognition, and responsibility that the employer gives the employee. This is supported by Herzberg, Bennett, (1997) whose two-factor theory concludes that pay is hygiene rather than a motivating factor.
As Guest et al. (1996) comment: “While employees may want what they have always wanted – security, a career, fair rewards, interesting work, and so on – employees no longer feel able or obliged to provide these. Instead, they have been demanding more of their employees in terms of greater input and tolerance of uncertainty and change, while providing less in return, in particular less security and more limited career prospects. A successful reward system will take into account of this and include a mixture of policies and practices to enable an employer to align the reward strategy with the business strategy. This study intends to demonstrate that personnel motivation is inextricably bound to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Teachers are key players in moving learning institutions to achieve their goals and objectives of molding students to excel in examinations and eventually succeed in life. Teachers therefore need motivation to enhance there level of job satisfaction in order to undertake their duty effectively and efficiently. Sarah,(2012) examined the factors which influence employee satisfaction in higher educational institution in Malaysia. She notes that strategic employee recognition, improved working condition, job security and training play a pivotal role and consequently employee satisfaction leads to ensuring that a higher productivity is derived from all employees within an organization. However an attempt by government, communities and school administrators to address job satisfaction among teachers has not been done adequately. Teacher dissatisfaction in Nigeria has resulted in strikes,(witnessed in September 2012 and August 2013),professional drain, fewer youths opting into the profession, and erosion of teacher confidence and integrity in life. Teachers in Isoko North local government area of Delta statereport that they have poor housing facilities mostly behind shops in market centres ,heavy work overload because of shortage of teachers ,poor transport systems because of the bad roads almost cutting them off from their loved family members as most of them work away from their home areas
(Orikodi,2007).If the forgoing situation is not effectively addressed then schools will continue to perform dismally in examinations, teachers will continue transferring out of the local government area of Delta statecausing teacher shortages and the trend may undermine quest for the schools to achieve their goals and objectives. The rationale of government in the huge expenditure on education of its budget would not imply. It is on the basis of this situation that the study focused on investigating factors influencing job satisfaction among teachers in Isoko North Sub County.
1.3 Purpose of study
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary schools in Isoko North Local government area of Delta state
1.4. Objective of the study
The study was guided by the following objectives:
1. To establish whether job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North Local government area of Delta state is influenced by student discipline.
2. To determine the influence of work environment on job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA.
3. To establish the influence of student school attendance rate on job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA.
4. To determine the influence of career choice and training on job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA.
The study was guided by the following questions.
1. What is the effect of student discipline on job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North local government area of Delta state
2. Does working environment influence job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA.
3. What is the influence of student school attendance on job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA.
4. Does career choice and training influence job satisfaction among teaching staff in public secondary schools in Isoko North LGA?
1.6 Significance of the study
Education is instrumental to the acquisition of gainful employment; teachers go through the process and eventually get teaching jobs which essentially should make them happy and satisfied. This has not been the case as evidenced in frequent strikes in Nigeria and the consistent poor performance in NSCE among many new secondary schools. Perhaps the reasons for these have not been unearthed adequately. It is for this reason that the study aimed at having an in depth investigation of hidden factors that influence job satisfaction among teachers in public secondary in Isoko North LGA. This research hopefully will be very useful to the teachers, principals, teachers unions, community, TSC and MOE in their decision making process. The study is hoped to avail information that will be useful in the determination of better working conditions by the teachers employer, accurate representation of teachers by the union officials in terms of remuneration and relevant pay packages, awareness creation for those intending to choose and join the profession. The findings of the study would enable teachers and students to be resolute in choosing and being on the job in order to achieve high level of job satisfaction.
1.7 Delimitation of the study.
First, this study principally focused on factors influencing job satisfaction among teachers (male and female) in public secondary school employed by the TSC in Isoko North LGA. Second, the findings from this study represent a small sample of schools and individual teachers.
The results therefore cannot be generalized to reflect all other teachers unless these schools have similar working conditions.
1.8 Limitation of the study
1. The use of questionnaires as the principle method of getting information had some limitations. There were no chances for further probe incase of ambiguity by respondent. However, the researcher came up with clear, well targeted, supervisor discussed questions to overcome this limitation.
2. The research findings may not be generalized to schools and teacher fraternity country wide because of the varied environment unique to each school. However those schools with similar conditions would apply.
3. Some teachers allied to the headmasters and the administration declined to divulge information that they thought was incriminating like misuse of funds meant for motivation of teachers and students. The researcher ensured adequate privacy by advising them not to write their names on the questionnaire.
1.9 Assumptions of the study
The study was based on the following assumptions
1. That the participants were cooperative and gave required information without reservation or fail.
2. Data collecting instruments were valid and measured the desired outcome of the study.
3. That the respondents were honest in responding to the questions asked.
1.10 Definition of significant terms used in the study
The following terms are defined to give meaning as used in this study:
Job satisfaction; describes teachers feelings attitudes or preference for their work
Student discipline; describes how students comply with accepted set standards by any group, community or school.
Work environment; conditions under which teachers do their proffesional work.
School attendance; Rate at which students appear in school to undertake their studies.
Career choice; given opportunity under which student makes decision over what he or she wants to do.
Job training; conditions under which skills are imparted for a given profession like teaching Motivation: Refers to the positive feelings as a result of appraisal of one’s job. It’s a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or experiences.
Commitment: Willingness to work whole heartedly without complains.
Retention: The act of keeping or not losing your employees
Transferring: Movement of employees from one organization to another in search of jobs that satisfy their needs
Absenteeism: Missing to report at work during the official hours of work.
Productivity: The rate at which a worker or company produces goods and the amount produced, compared with how much time, work and money indeed to produce them.
Achievement: To succeed in a particular goal especially using your own effort and skills.
Job performance: How well or badly the work is done.
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