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1.1 Background of the study
There is no human endeavour that does not require proper management for its proper functioning. All types of organization government establishments, business enterprises, hospitals, schools, cooperatives, churches among other require good management to function effectively. Managing is one of the most important activities that cover all originations. Where people work together for the attainment of a set objective, there is a need for management that is charged with the responsibilities of ensuring that the aims and objectives of the organization are realized. Management however is defined as getting things done through others. It involves the coordination of all resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organizational objectives. The successful attainment of our educational goals or objectives requires proper management of all resources in education that will lead to the attainment of the goals in education (mentor, 2004). Thus teachers of English education must master the way learning takes place and discover how to effectively manage classroom lessons so as to maximize learning. The term classroom management usually refers to management of physical environment and instructional materials (Olurundare, 2004). It also concerns with the organization of non academic task such as checking of class attendance, record keeping of class progress, monitoring and regulating the activities and behavior of students maintaining order and disorder which are essential for teaching and learning. Contributing to effective classroom management by the teacher, Balawin (2006) maintained that there should be necessary equipment to help the teacher manages the class with ease. He listed this equipment to include:
1. Maintenance of class discipline
2. Giving rewards and punishment
3. Motivation to how to maintain it in the class.
4. Vested knowledge of the subject matter, methods and individual differences of the students.
This Implies that good or effective classroom management is key to academic success of the student. However where effective classroom management was lacking, there is bound to be indiscipline in the class and teaching and learning would be disrupted or affected adversely. Oliver and Reschly (2007) noted that classroom management is a factor that influences academic performance in schools. Classroom management refers to preventing disruptive behaviour so as to improve academic performance of students. Academic performance refers to the ability of students to remember facts and be able to communicate their knowledge verbally or through writing. Also academic performance refers to performance in tests and examinations (Cambridge University Reporter, 2003). Effective classroom management is determined by teacher’s qualification, teacher’s experience, instructional methods used and the methods of assessment (Oliver & Reschly, 2007). Sound behaviour management establishes environments that make good instruction possible, at the same time effective instructional methods reduces behaviour problems through engaging students in meaningful academic tasks (Emmer and Stough, 2007). The inabilities to effectively manage classroom behaviour contribute to low academic achievement. (Donovan and cross, 2002). To Emmer and Stough, 2007), the inability to mange the classroom behaviour is a result of teachers shortage that allows for less qualified and less experienced teachers to handle classroom. Emmer and Stough (2007) observes that the ability of teacher to organize classrooms and mange the behaviour of their students is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. A good classroom management makes good instruction possible, in addition, classroom management is a significant part of an effective teaching learning process. Due to effective classroom management, students flourish in a positive class climate and a compassionate environment. From a student’s perspective, effective classroom management provides them the opportunities to socialize themselves while learning. From a teachers perspective, effective classroom management involves precautionary discipline and fruitful teaching (James and Chilvers,2001). Okeli (2008) concluded that physical environment of the classroom and seating arrangement are interrelated and manage alongside. Effective classroom management is much more than just administering corrective measures when a student misbehaves, it is about developing proactive ways to prevent problems from occurring in the first place while creating a positive learning environment (Kaushar, 2013). In addition, fuller (2006) noted that although there are other moderating factors associated with students classroom behaviour and academic performance of students; teachers time management, teachers effective communicative skills, teacher classroom discipline and teachers quality are the key factors the determine the levels of academic performance of the students in school. Teacher’s time management are important to academic success. Managing time in the classroom depends on knowing what needs to be done and when to do it. Time management is the process of organizing and planning how to divide time between specific activities. Good time management enables the teacher to achieve lesson objectives and to work smarter. It involves planning a lesson in such a way that teacher’s activities and the activities of students is indicated teacher classroom time management also involves setting of instructional goals, planning of activities to be done in the class in order to teach a topic. Planning of activities expected to be done by the students in the classroom, making of time estimates for each of the activity set and set priorities (Briton and Abraham, 2001). Teachers communication skills in the classroom is usually defined as the transmission of a message that involves the shared understanding between the context in which the communication takes place (Tsui, 2003). Communication takes place through channels. Within the teaching profession, communication skills are applied in the teachers classroom management, pedagogy and interaction with the class (Saunder and Mills. 2000). In addition, teaching speaking skills is important in teacher education (MCcarthy and Carter, 2001). Anselmus (2011) view teachers quality as the right way of conveying unit of knowledge application and skills to the students. The right way includes knowledge of content, process, methods and means of converging content. Teacher’s quality also refers to the ability of the teacher to help, guide and counsel his or her student to achieve high grades. Mentor (2004) maintained that a teacher is an effective class manager when he is able to help, guide and counsel his or her students to attain high education achievement. Teacher’s classroom discipline is the ability of a teacher to help his students to submit themselves willingly to disciplinary influences in the classroom. It is the application of those influences which secure right conduct of the students in classroom without disturbances (mentor, 2004). Again, mentor (2004) concluded by saying that when students are not distracted by negative influences in the class, effective learning and achievement will take place. According to Essien (2007), the usefulness of class discipline include the following; to create love for the lesson, to enable the students to have free will and free movement in the class, to check offences which are bad among students in the class and to train the character of the students in the school and in the classroom to enhance effective learning achievement. Effective classroom management is the key to students academic performance. However where effective classroom management was lacking, there is bound to be indiscipline in the class and teaching and learning would he disrupted or affected adversely. The provision of functional education to the students has been a major concerned to payment, educationists and individuals. Therefore call for a question, to what extent has the classroom management by teachers affect the student’s school academic performance in Biology in secondary school in Local Government area, Akwa Ibom state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Teaching at secondary school level is not synonymous with lecturing at higher education level. Majority of the teachers in uyo senior secondary school feel that writing lesson notes daily to teach the student was the only solution to academic success of the students. They forget that effective classroom management together with good quality lessen notes will make the students to achieves maximally. The school supervisors had observed that teachers are not properly manages their classroom which is the cause of student’s poor performance in both internal and external examination. It has also been observed that in spite of students poor performance in both internal and external school examinations in English language in secondary schools, little is done to find out the relationship between effective classroom management variables such as teachers time management, teachers effective communication skills, teachers classroom discipline and teachers quality. Based on the afore-mentioned, the problem of this study is to investigate the relationship between teacher’s classroom management and academic performance of students in English language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Objectives of the study are;
1. To determine the relationship between teacher’s time management and academic performance of students in English language in secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
2. To determine the relationship between teacher’s effective communication skills and academic performance of students in English Language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
3. To determine the relationship between teaches classroom discipline and academic performance of students in English Language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
4. To determine the relationship between teachers quality and academic performance of students in English language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
1.4 RESEARH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no relationship between teacher’s time management and academic performance of students in English language in secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
H1: there is relationship between teacher’s time management and academic performance of students in English language in secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
H02: there is no relationship between teachers quality and academic performance of students in English language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
H2: there is relationship between teacher’s quality and academic performance of students in English language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study would be of immense benefits to policy makers and educational planners in the ministry of education because it may be a useful guide in making relevant policies for English Language education programme in educational institution. The result of this study is expected to provide data for curriculum planners and counselors as well as providing additional stock of secondary school data to stake holders in educational system who might find it relevant and useful in their enquires. The result of this research work may be useful to the ministry of Education by providing relevant data based to the government in funding and provision of sufficient materials, tools and equipment for effective implementation of English language and education progammes. This research may add to be research of English education teachers and students by improving their general performance academically as that is the expected outcomes. Finally, the result of this finding would fill the gap in knowledge and provide possible solutions to some of the practical and theoretical problems that exist within teachers and the student on academic performance in English language in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers teacher classroom management and academic performance of student in English language. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TEACHER: A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
CLASSROOM: A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn about things. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
STUDENT: A student or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain, those attending university are termed "students" while "pupil refers to an attendee of a lower educational institute; the same was typically true in the United States previously.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE: English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish, as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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