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1.1 Background to the Study
Education is very important for the development of individuals and the society. In realization of the role which education plays in national development, the government of Nigeria has introduced various educational policies and programmes with great expectation that the felt socio-economic and political needs of the citizenry would be met by the government. This problem led to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in September 1976 by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
The programme was introduced with the intention of taking care of the educational demands of Nigerians. The UPE scheme is predicated on the assumption that every Nigeria, child has an alienable right to a minimum of 7 years of education if he is to function effectively as a citizen of Nigeria, irrespective of gender or religious
Fafunwa (1986) in an assessment of the Universal Basic Education (UBE)programme remarked that 10 years after the introduction of U.P.E the educational outcome showed that the national objectives were not fully realized due to certain national problems such as finance, insufficient competent teachers and shortage of classrooms.
In what seems to be a response to the agitation for a more functional and qualitative educational systems the federal government of Nigeria introduce Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 1999.UBE in Nigeria is a positive reaction to the Jonterm declaration of education for all by the year 2000. It also signifies its commitment to the total eradication of literacy. It sees education in its broadest sense of close articulation of the formal, non formal and informal approaches as an instrument for the awakening and development of human potentials.
The implementation document on U.B.E (2000) explains the meaning and scope of U.B.E as the foundation for sustainable lifelong learning for the acquisition of numeracy skills. In Nigerian context, basic education includes primary, junior secondary, nomadic education as well as adult education.
By implication a child will spend 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior Secondary school. The education programme shall be directed towards the acquisition of functional literacy, numeracy and life-skill especially for adults. Furthermore it will also function as out of school, non-formal programmes for updating the knowledge and skills of persons who left schools before acquiring the basic skills needed for life long learning. It is expected also to provide non-formal skills and apprenticeship training from adolescent and youth who have not had the benefit of formal education.
The Universal Basic Education programme was founded by the State and Local governments, with support from the federal government through its intervention programme. Federal government provides matching grant. This is utilized as follows.
Primary 60 %, J.SS 35 %. It is applied as follows.
Construction of classrooms/furniture e.t.c 70 % Procurement of textbooks, Instructional materials e.t.c 15 % and teacher professional development e.t.c 15 % through the universal basic education commission and state Universal Basic Education SUBEB. The Federal Government coordinates and monitors the implementation of the following objective of UBE programme by the Federal Government.
i. Developing the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion.
ii. The provision of free universal Basic Education of every Nigerian child of school age.
iii. Reducing drastically the incidence of drop-outs from the formal school system through improved relevance quality and efficiency.
iv. Catering for the learning needs of young person who for one reason or another have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of Basic Education (UBE, 2000).
The administration of former president Obasanjo is very much concerned about the general improvement of primary and junior secondary education in the country. SUBEB Kano is very much committed in this programme.
To ensure that this is a achieved in the state, staff welfare, provision of infrastructure, teaching and retraining, proper utilization of curriculum s well as management and funding should be given top priority.
Staff welfare: A sound and promising teacher’s welfare package should be evolved to motivate and entice them to remain in the job and perform satisfactorily.
Teaching and Learning Materials: The supply of adequate and suitable materials is essential for the overall success of the scheme in the state.
Infrastructure: Rehabilitation of dilapidated buildings and the construction of new ones should be considered in order to accommodate the increasing number of intakes. Also adequate classroom furniture should be provided.
Training and Re-training: There must be frequent and regular training and retraining of staff which will ensures evaluable and capable human resources to manage the scheme in
Community Participation: Local Communities should be fully mobilized to support the school system as a means to restore public confidence in the scheme.
Funding: The three tiers of government should be committed in funding primary education programme in the state. However, the personnel enrolment and over head cost which is responsibility of local governments should be deducted at first charge. Management: The structure of state primary education boards should be allowed to continue with the chairman as the executive. Also zonal coordinating offices should be encouraged for quality control, materials development as well as resources mobilizations in the scheme.
At the LGEA level the LGEA Education committee chairman and the local Government chairman should be carried along in order to be aware of educational activities and programme in their area of jurisdiction.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education is capital intensive as a result the running of UBE scheme demands a lot of capital and unless the government is financially committed to the project, the implementation might be ineffective. Inadequate funding can cripple the effective implementation of the scheme. The introduction of UBE programme has led to population expulsion in primary schools. The pupils enrolment is on the increase on yearly basis.
According to Musa 1987 in Olu (2012) educationist and researchers have agreed that enrolment in our primary school has increased massively. The UBE scheme has attracted many children to school which resulted in explosive enrolment in primary school in the country. Enrolment rose from 21,122,583 pupils in 2007 to 21,714,314 in 2009. Also the number of primary schools grew from 56,105 in 2007 to 57,970 in 2009.
Unfortunately there is no corresponding increase in the provision of facilities, equipment, and personnel on primary schools. There is shortage of classroom spaces, teachers, equipments and other facilities to accommodate the increase in primary schools.
Another problem militating against the programme is lack of accurate data. The commission does not have accurate data of their staff and teachers in the programme. In the commission there is inaccurate data on funds allocation and management of resources. There is no accurate data on equipment and facilities for the programme. Also it is necessary to attempt in determine the level of funding and it’s utilization for the purpose of improving the UBE scheme and educational development.
According to Baikie (2000) literacy rate is estimated at 52% of the population in the year 2000. Again, 21million children were of school going age as at the year. The disturbing scenario arising from the quoted statistical information above is quite daunting. In Nigeria, the problem of statistics for planning cannot be overemphasized. For example, the natural population census which is expected to provide the most reliable data for educational planning and implementation has always been politicized. Planning in Nigeria is mostly based on projected statistical data which is inaccurate for educational planning.
Inaccurate data for educational planning can constitute a threat to the envisage benefit of UBE scheme. Another problem facing UBE scheme is the problem of inadequate supply of facilities and equipment. Most of the existing structures are dilapidated and in a state of disrepair, most of the school libraries, and laboratories are ill equipped. Educational related materials such as tables, chairs, textbooks, charts etc are either damaged or in short supply. According to Baikie (2000) the cost of providing essential educational facilities is about 300million US dollars. Currently, this figured have double ten times. We should be talking about 3,000million US dollars or more. Funding of education in Nigeria is a problem. The extent and manner at which the funds are disbursed becomes important issue. Sometimes, federal and state government delay in distributing the funds to the states LGA and schools for effective implementation of the programme.
There has been call for a new set of rules for the allocation of federation account funds in line with the constitution. It should be recall that due to economic problem facing the nation financial responsibility for primary education across levels of government has never been fully resolved. Sources and modalities for funding this levels of education have undergone significant changes.
Based on this the researcher develop the desire to access the management and performance of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Kano state for the purpose of improving the UBE scheme and educational development in the state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study is about the assessment of the management of Universal Basic
Education (UBE) programme in Kano state. The following are objectives of the study to:
1. examine the staff situation of the UBE programme in Kano state.
2. investigate the provision and maintenance of facilities in UBE programme in
3. investigate the funding of the UBE programme in Kano state
4. determine student enrolment and retention of the UBE programme in Kano state.
5. examine the teachers and school counselor supervision of the UBE programme in Kano state.
1.4 Research Questions
Research questions to the study are:
i. What is the staff situation in the State Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme?
ii. Does the State Universal Basic Education (UBE) provide and maintain teaching and learning facilities in Kano state?
iii. What is the level of funding of the UBE programme in Kano state?
iv. What is the rate of student’s enrolment and retention in the state Universal Basic Education programme in Kano state?
v. How effective is the supervision of UBE programme in Kano state?
Hypotheses to the study are as follows:
1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of the four groups of respondentsi.e. SUBEB, Headmasters/Principals, Teachers and PTA on Staff situation of State
Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Kano State.
2. There is no significant difference in the opinion of the four groups ofrespondents on provision and maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in the State Universal basic education programme in Kano State.
3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of the four groups ofrespondents on the level of funding of Universal Basic Education UBE programme in Kano State.
4. There is no significance different in the opinions of the four groups ofrespondents on the rate of student enrolment and retention in State Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Kano State.
5. There is no significant difference in the opinions of the four groups ofrespondents on supervision of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Kano State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumptions:
1. The amount of money allocated by federal and state governments for the running of the UBE scheme is not what is utilized for the development of the scheme in a the state.
2. The percentage of the allocation that eventually gets to the schools is not sufficient to carry out the planned programme of the scheme
3. Working condition of staffs in the programme is not satisfactory in the state.
4. The provision of teaching and learning materials in the programme is not
adequate in the state.
5. Infrastructure provided for the programme in the state is not sufficient to carry out the planned programme of the scheme.
1.7Significance of the Study
The study will be of significant to the state universal Basic education commission, local government and universal Basic education at the federal level. By providing vital information to the federal government. It will also be of importance to higher instructions of learning researchers e.t.c it will assist the public, federal and state ministry of education, and financial institutions e.t.c.
Primary school administrators and educational research council would also benefit from the findings of this study. Also the study u ill be of help to principles, head teachers, and teachers in primary and junior secondary schools.
A study of this kind will provide information on how to fund primary schools properly and improve the quality of education given to children in primary school in
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is as follows:
The research is centered on assessment of Kano State Universal Basic Education programme from 2008-2013. Area of study SUBEB Government Primary School, Government Junior Secondary School.Some of the limitations are finance for carrying out the research, time management, and language barrier etc.
1.9 Definition of Terms and Abbreviations
i. Staff situation: The condition of workers employed in an organization and their working environment.
ii. Teaching and learning facilities: This has to do with building services, and equipment use to impact knowledge or skill.
iii. Funding:Money provided for a particular purpose or project. The act of providing money for such a purpose or project.
iv. Student enrolment: This is the act of enrolling student in a school or in a particular programme.
v. Supervision: This is to ensure that everything is done correctly. It is constant visitation by government official to schools to ensure that guidelines and educartional standards are maintained.
vi. Management:This is the act of running, controlling and coordinating, business and other activities in a particular organization.
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