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Background of the Study
E-learning (EL) basically involves use and application of information and communication technologies (ICT) at web sites, personal computers (PCs), tablet PCs, cell phones, learning management system (LMS), televisions (TVs), radios and other means to improve teaching and learning processes. E-learning is really a unifying phrase accustomed to explain the areas associated with the internet, web-based instruction and technologies directions (Oye, Salleh and Iahad, 2010). In that respect, e-learning is substantially becoming a learning strategy in the realms of teaching, practical learning, skills training and development and many corporate functions as evidenced by massive development of web technologies.
Most secondary schools in Lagos State are the responsibility of the government. There are also schools which are managed by private individuals, universities, pressure groups, religious bodies and foreign communities. The majority of secondary schools in Nigeria offer the junior and senior secondary programme. Before the turn of the century, secondary school students lacked the knowledge of information and communication technologies and its numerous advantages that that we have now. The use of the chalk and board, pictorial charts, drawings and imaginations was used to buttress learning experiences in those days. There was no physical contact with technologies that have now come to improve our knowledge and experiences.
The integration of technological awareness and learning in junior secondary schools is today making significant strides towards use of more interactive e-learning strategies to effectively enhance overall performance of college students and their trained personnel. In many developed economies, several academic institutions make use of extremely interactive e-learning that directly enhances students’ performance (Soleymanpour, Khalkhali and Reayatkoonandeh, 2010). In the recent era, technologies have indeed become devices accustomed to get rid of physical obstacles and allow students to learn at anytime and anywhere without having physical interaction with the instructor. Against this background, e-Learning therefore improves easy access to effective teaching and learning, and thus enhancing students’ academic efficiency.
According to Heeger (2010), e-learning enables numerous secondary school students to take similar programs concurrently. Nowadays, educational systems have grown to enjoy the reasonable instructions in addition to their learning. Research findings indicate that e-learning systems permit instruction method geared to improve top quality related to instruction and students’ academic achievement. Soleymanpour, Khalkhali and Reayatkoonandeh (2010) further elaborate that those private secondary school that have demonstrated remarkable use of e-learning generally perform quite much better than student counterparts who much rely on use of face-to-face communications and physical interactions with their instructors.
Heeger (2010) report shows that secondary school students who generally participate in online or e-learning achieve far better amounts compared to secondary school students who examined traditional methods. Due to emergence of advancements in educational technology, e- learning is currently gaining substantial attention in education and for this reason; several educational institutions are now pursuing application of electronic learning programs. As such, e-learning is continuously becoming well-established in a number of both private and public education institutions in the world nowadays. Most of these education institutions have become aware of the impacts related to e-learning on students’ academic achievement.
A broad range of learning approaches exists already, for example, e-learning, blended learning, and distance learning which utilize information and communication technology (ICT). The use of ICT can benefit, for example, students in rural areas by having them attend classes as distance learners and motivating them to learn. Regarding this, the potential of e-learning seems very assuring, but because of gaps between developed and developing countries knowledge transfer is not only difficult but also costly. There is little systematic research into the overall effectiveness of e-learning as a learning medium despite the great interest in it, while there is much more work to be done, a variety of e-learning courses aimed at making sustainable development a reality have been developed and demonstrate how e-learning can reach thousands if not millions of minds and potentially plant the seeds of change.
According to case studies, there are already a number of e-learning programs offered in developing countries. These programs are developed by various national and international initiatives. The growth of e-learning programs according to Lockwood & Gooley, 2002 is driven by the need for and potential of providing education in less expensive ways, increased access to information, effective learning and greater flexibility.
Statement of Problem
This study was necessitated by the deplorable state of educational system in Nigeria due to the inadequate modern teaching–learning facilities and infrastructures. Most libraries in Nigerian secondary schools do not possess required audio-visual learning materials and the ones that have are hardly utilised as a result of incessant power outages and sometimes lack of awareness on the part of the students. Formerly, schools depended on the face-to-face classroom teaching and learning experience but the advent of the technology age has brought about gadget that can improve such experiences.. Various learning approaches are being put in place to compensate for the problems occasioned by this traditional learning paradigm. One of them has been the online instruction, which has the potential to provide opportunities for reflective and integrating learning outcomes. This approach when utilized provides the students with adaptive personalized e-learning experiences because it is a practical approach which can be replicated by the students to improve learning outcomes. It involves the use of mobile technologies such as personal digital assistants and MP3/MP4 player and includes the use of web-based teaching materials, computer rooms or web-sites, webinars, collaborative software and other technologies which can enable the students attend lectures without been physically present. Mavins Beacon application for students, e-mail, blogs, wikis, text chart, computer aided assistant, educational animation, simulation, games, learning management software et cetera are other collaborative packages available.
On the basis, the statement of the problem is to evaluate the impact of e-learning on academic performance of business studies students in secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
Purpose of The Study
The purpose of this study is as follows:
- Establish the impact of e-learning on academic performance of Business studies students in secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
2. Examine the roles of Government and Private sector on the development of E-Learning in junior secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
3. Determine the impact of e-learning on the improvement of the quality of education of business studies students’ in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
4. Ascertain ICT as a key factor for assessing students’ academic performance
Significance of Study
This study has great significance. First of all, the study findings will provide knowledge and information on the impact of E-learning on education and academic performance of students. It will also provide knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to policymakers. The research is of importance to planners, implementers and recipients of the curriculum to the effect that it could enhance students’ academic performance in various academic disciplines. Application of ICT-based teaching and learning in an interactive manner stimulate students’ interests to acquire knowledge and apply the acquired knowledge in solving practical life social and economic problems.
The study was guided by the following research questions:
- What is the impact of E-Learning on the academic performance of business studies students in secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
2. What are the roles of Government and Private sector in the development of E-Learning in junior secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State?
3. What is the impact of E-learning on the improvement of the quality of education of business studies students in Educational District IV of Lagos State?
4. Why is ICT a key factor in assessing students’ academic performance?
Scope of Study
The study is aimed at the impact of e-learning on the academic performance of business studies students in secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State.
Operational Definition of Terms
E-learning-involves use and application of information and communication technologies (ICT) to aid learning
Academic performance-Students efforts as measured by school grades
Educational technology-is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources
Information and Communication Technology (ICT): is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.
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