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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Traditionally and for the longest time, women have been viewed as child-bearers and keepers of the home (Wright, 2000). This has continued to be the case despite the fact that the present charade gives the impression that people are liberal-minded about the issues pertaining to gender equality. Clutterbuck & Devine (2007) observes that only one in six women and one in five men take the view that men should go out to work while women stay at home. This age-old mindset has posed many unnecessary barriers which women are forced to attempt to conquer in pursuit of their careers. According to Kimmel (2001), women could not have it all because men did; men had the fulfilling careers as well as a loving family to which they could come home to.
Today, as married women commonly pursue their careers outside the home, concerns as to their ability to achieve equal footing with their male counterparts without sacrificing their families needs trouble both policymakers as well as economists (Blau, 2000). According to Ilagan-Bian (2004), women faced many challenges in moving up such as non-supportive bosses or colleagues, sexual discrimination and male chauvinism. Women still list male prejudice and the „old boy network‟ as the main obstacles to their progress (Clutterbuck & Devine, 2007; Ilagan- Bian, 2004). To achieve equal status, the requirement level for women to achieve in the workplace, is set at a much higher standard, they are required to work harder, be more qualified, more ambitious and competent than their male counterparts (Bryce, 2009). However, they do not reach authoritative positions with the same ease as their male counterparts with similar positions, backgrounds and qualifications as themselves (Bryce, 2009).
Some women even try to emulate their male counterparts, in the hope that they could climb the corporate ladder faster (Ilagan-Bian, 2004). Male dominance in the workplace has forced a number of women to adopt a more aggressive model. “The constantly reinforced message is that women succeed only if they become more assertive, competitive, “dressed for success” and more politically and socially astute” (Erasmus, Schenk & Van Wyk, 2000:394). This places women in a disadvantaged position because they tend to lose sight of other responsibilities and they sacrifice their personal lives (Bryce, 2009). Ilagan-Bian (2004) argues that female managers have to work harder in order to be noticed and to prove that they can handle the job, the family as well as everything else.
While a majority of the women still face discrimination and gender bias, in the last few decades, the number of women successful in politics, technology and business etc. is definitely on the rise. Society has started seeing women in a different perspective. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, social workers, teachers, secretaries, managers and officers etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. However, it is true that working women have to face problems by virtue of their sex. For centuries women have been subjected to exploitation and torture, physically, sexually and mentally. There are innumerable challenge and problems faced by them both at home and workplace. What we generally see today, in addition to various media and journal reports is that in the workplace women generally face mental stress, sexual harassment, discriminatory practices, safety and security issues etc (Martin, 2009). Most society thinks of women only as homemakers and sexual objects and is generally subjected to exploitation and torture (Dube, 2001).
Women in the workforce earning wages or a salary are part of a modern phenomenon, one that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men; yet women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce (N. Andal 2002). A woman is a social animal. To keep her in captivity, without access to work or finance or interaction with the outside world, is less than fair (Eisenhover, 2002). Economic, social and political empowerment of women is essential for the development of any society. Working women are essential for the development of the society, so empowerment of women is important to the process of upliftment of economic, social, political status of women. Traditionally women have been the under-privileged ones in the society, not enjoying the same rights or standards of living as the other half of the population.
According to Robin (2002) “Sexism is the root oppression, the one which, until and unless we uproot it, will continue to put forth the branches of racism, class, hatred, ageism, competition, ecological disaster and economic exploitation. No other human differentiations can be similarly powerful in reproducing oppressions, and so, women are the real left.” Status of women can be broadly defined as the degree of socio-economic equality and freedom enjoyed by women. Economic, social and cultural factors interplay for reinforcing the gender differences in ownership, control and access to land trough inheritance, marriage or informal networks (Arun, 2004).
Women’s economic status in the household, depends on three levels of influence, viz., women’s acquired economic and social power, the socio-economic status of their households and the level of support and opportunities in the community (Zhao, 2001).Women’s economic well-being is usually enhanced by women acquiring independent sources of income that begets increased self-esteem and improved conditions of their households and the overall level of development in their communities. The gender gap in the ownership and control of property is the most significant contributor to the gender gap in the economic wellbeing, social status and empowerment of women (Andal, 2002) Women have been playing vital roles in households since ages. Now women are also recognized for their value in the workplace and are engaged in wide range of activities of work in addition to their routine domestic work. Building a society where women can breathe freely without fear of oppression, exploitation, and discrimination is the need of the hour, to ensure a better future for the next generation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The emergence and determined survival of women in high flying jobs today in corporations and organizations depends on their own willingness to confront and fight strong barriers and hurdles that stand their way, some too grave to confront and others less weighty. They range from male chauvinism, corporate cultures/traditions organizational politics among many others. In their quest to climb up the corporate ladder, women are facing many challenges (Evertson and Nesbitt, 2004). Some barrier set up women for defeat; sluggish upward motion that drag them down in their pursuit to progress in their careers. Such pose as huge barricades, tests and trials for women employees. Finally, several research has been carried out on the factors determining women’s participation in decision making but not even a single research has been carried out on the challenges of recruiting women managers in industries; a case study of indomie company.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine the challenges of recruiting women mangers in industries. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the factors affecting the recruitment of women managers in an industries.
2. to determine the perception of management in recruiting women managers in an industries.
3. to determine the effect of recruiting women managers in industries.
4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors affecting the recruitment of women managers in an industries?
2. What is the perception of management in recruiting women managers in an industry?
3. What is the effect of recruiting women managers in industries?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Recruitment of women manager has no significant effect in industries.
H1: Recruitment of women manager has a significant effect in industries.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the challenges of recruiting women managers in industries will be of immense benefit to the entire indomie industry in the sense that it will enable the women to manage some of their challenges like job stress and their family. It will also enable the male counterparts to give respect to the female counterparts and more also women managers irrespective of their age or qualification. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the challenges of recruiting women managers in industries is limited to Indomie Company.
The study on the challenges of recruiting women mangers in industries is limited to indomie industries.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ChallengesA call to prove or justify something.
Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, short listing, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs within an organisation.
WomenA woman is a female human being. The term woman is usually reserved for an adult, with the term girl being the usual term for a female child or adolescent.
ManagementThe process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
Companyis a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural, legal, or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
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