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1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The world has been reduced into a global village as a result of the emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Televisions is one of such technologies. It is a modern digital technology that makes us of computers to send vast amount of digital information to all parts of the globe. Television as a new distributing medium emerged as a result of digital technology and the internet which has triggered a revolution in the way information is stored and transmitted which has permanently changed the media environment. Thus the traditional mass communication media (television and radio) are struggling to cope with this drastic development.
Today, communication changes are moving faster than ever before for the mass media industries, this means increase cost, to replace old equipment, for consumers, this means a confusing array of products. Biagi S. (2007:27)
Thus satellite signal are compressed in order to allow a greater number of channels to be transmitted to and from an orbiting satellite to prevent people from receiving the signals without a subscription. The signals are encrypted (scrambled so that only those with a proper decoder can view them). The satellite receiver decrypts the signals and distributes them to one or more TV sets. Dominick R. (2009:266).
The multiple channels transmitted by Television are mostly foreign programs produce by the rich industrialized (developed) countries of the west and transmitted to the developing countries of North America, Africa and Asia. Making these countries to become dependent. Perhaps Nigeria as a developing country has also in a great deal depended on such foreign programs and of course has been importing both hard and soft ware product containing such programs; this has great consequences.
Continued dependence on media programs for their broadcast system would be disastrous to their culture and development … the adaption of borrowed goal and sets of professional norms from the mass media is inappropriate for meeting the needs of developing nations. It is sad to note that the media of developed nations have continioued to portray the regions of developing world as areas of earth quakes, national disasters, dictators, military coup’ de tas, economic chaos, conflicts, catastrophe, hunger, famine, political instability, Aids, malaria, bureaucratic inefficiency, official corruption etc. Kartz, E. (1973)
Nigeria is now experiencing cultural inversion, foreign culture has eroded the culture of the people and the effect is seen in the way we dress, talk and eat amongst others. This trend is quite clear on our campuses, as you see students try to model their life style on some actors they admire seeing on Television. Little wonder therefore, today girls put on low west trousers and go about half necked with tops that exposes their breast, their Hair-do and make-ups are alien. Boys are not excluded, as they say their trousers to revile their inner wears. in Africa, were cultural values up hold decency in dressing and behavior.
Indecent dressing has caused a lot of problem on our campuses. Lectures accuse students of seducing them with indecent dressing, rape cases are still on the increase on campus.
Almost every youth in Nigeria today is a fan of one football club or the other. Thus, teams like Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester United, Liver pool and so on, have become a brand name in every home. Fans turn up in large numbers to watch their various teams play as they cheer them up with loud shout and do other crazy things anytime a team scores a goal. Youths go as far as killing one another because of such football.
Television transmits different type of football league, like the UEFA champions league, Premier league, La-liga and so on. Viewing these matches takes away the youth’s productive time, they go about in JC dresses carrying prefer westernred names of players.
This has adversely affected our local sport as you hardly hear names of our local football clubs like the Lobbi stars of Makurdi, Eyiba of Anambra, Sharks of Port Harcourt and so on. Our stadiums are dried up any time there is match because, people prefer western football and other programs transmitted by Television.
“Should a country open itself to new mass media or not? The answer is to be found within the countries overall political, economic and social environment. Thus the introduction of Television is usually linked with emphasis on short-range consumerist purpose and coupled with that, a short-range ensuring of the loyalty of the masses. Generally the introduction of Television means a markedly altered balance of trade because the entire hard ware involved with TV, has to be imported. Kunczik M. (1993:227).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The transmission of foreign programs by Television is having a lot of influence on the political, social and cultural institutions in Nigeria. The youth in this case are mostly affected since they are more likely to copy norms and value which they perceive to be more prefer westernable to the indigenous culture.
Therefore there is the fear of propaganda and transmission of provocative material that can increase tension domestically and internationally and the promotion of cultural imperialism.
It is on this note that the research investigates the influence of Television on the youths in Nigeria and its implication on our cultural values, using the Benue state university Makurdi students as a case study.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To assess the influence of Television on the youths in Nigeria.
2. To find out the consequences of Television Programmes on Nigerian youths cultural values
3. To find out whether why Nigerian youths cultural values prefer western Television programmes to local Television programmes.
4. To ascertain the challenges posed by Television on our local Television
1.4 RESEACH QUESTIONS.
1. How do Television Programmes influence the Nigerian youths cultural values?
2. What are the influence of Television Programmes on Nigerian youths cultural values
3. Why do Nigeria youths prefer western Television Programmes to local television programs
4. What are the challenges posed by Television on our local television
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will help the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC), to examine satellite transmission in Nigeria and device proper ways under its guide lines on how to license and checkmate the operations of satellite transmission in Nigeria.
It will sound as a warning to the Nigeria audiences on the negative aspects of imitating the alien culture at the detriment of African culture, and suggest possible ways Nigeria can make the best use of satellite broadcasting.
It will alert the Nigeria Ministry of Culture and Tourism to develop polices on how to safe guard and promote the culture of its people.
To the local television stations operating in Nigeria it will be a wake-up call on the need to generate quality local content programs that will reflect the true culture of the people. And can compete side by side with the foreign programs transmitted by Television
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study takes a look at how Television is influencing the Nigeria audience and impeding development on our local structures. It focuses on the negative effect of Television programmes on the cultural value of Nigeria Youths and how such programmes are affecting our local Television programs. It uses Benue state University Student as a case study.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS
CULTURE: Carey sees culture as a process, but it can also refer to some shared attributes of human groups (such as their physical environment, tools, religion, customs and practices or their whole way of life). McQuail D. (2005:113).
DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: Any system for recording and reading information, images, sound in computer base numerical codes rather than in the older “analog” system were information is directly stored on film or tape and copies are lower quality than original beside being easier to access, manipulate and store than analog copies. Digital versions of text are all of equal quality.
DIGITAL INFORMATION (SIGNAL): An electronic signal that changes in discrete steps each representing a numerical data value or logic state.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: Is the design, development, implementation, support or management of computer- based information system, particularly software application and computer hard wares. (According to information technology association of America ITAA, n.d)
MASS MEDIA: according to Hoffmann M. (2007:178) any form of communication produced by a few for the consumption by many people. Mass Media are channels of communication through which massages flow, as the massages go through the channels, they are distorted, when people receive media massage they have no opportunity for immediate feedback with the producer of the program.
SATELLITE: An earth-orbiting communication spacecraft designed to send and receive date from other satellite or earth station. This data may carry voice, audio, video or other information; it is the bases for Television, certain kinds of internet access and cell phone uses.
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