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1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
This research work would be carried-out in one of the four (4) major areas of linguistics (phonology). Phonology is the systematic study of sounds system of a language. However, the research work does not include all aspects of phonology rather it will be restricted to two important phonological processes in Hausa language: Labialization and Palatalization which are secondary articulations in Hausa language. Dustan, E (1996).
It is obvious that Hausa is the most widely spoken language among its different users in northern part of the country among different dialects such as Kananci, Sakkwatanci, Katsinanci, Kabanci, Zamfaranci, and the like. Dustan, E (1996).
Mu’azu (2005), sees labialization as a secondary articulation in which lip rounding is added to a non-labial sound as in the case of articulation of /kw/, /ƙw/, and /gw/ consonants which are specifically referred to as labialized velars. Palatalisation is a verbal noun derived from the verb to “palatalized” means to add a palatal
articulation (raise the front of the tongue towards the hard palate) to a non-palatal consonant under certain conditions. Palatalization is also a secondary articulation; there may be modification which adds an in colouring to the sound. The question now is, what are the kinds of consonants and under what conditions are they palatalized? Generally speaking, consonants that are commonly palatalized in Hausa under particular circumstances are twofold, namely the alveolars /s/, /t/, /d/ and /z/, and the velars /w/, /k/, /ƙ/, and /g/. Sani M. A. Z. (2005).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Hausa language is spoken in Nigeria particularly in the Northern region of the country since time immemorial. It is no doubt, the most widely spoken language in Nigeria. In particular the language is spoken as L1 in many states of the Northern Nigeria which include: Kano, Katsina, Daura, Zamfara, Kebbi and etc. This study examines two (2) phonological processes: (labialization and palatalization) in Hausa language. It is part of the study to identify the nature and conditions for each of them in Hausa language.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Several studies were conducted in linguistic area of Hausa language but much attention has not been given to phonological processes such as glottalization, labialization, pharyngealization etc, in Hausa language. This has motivated the reseacher to conduct a study on two selected phonological processes: (labialization and Palatalization) in Hausa language as contribution to the development of Hausa phonology.
1.3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study cannot be over-emphasized, this is because it serves as a yardstick to determine where an why non-labialized sounds can be labialized and the non-palatalized sounds can also be palatalized in Hausa language. It could also be serves as a solid foundation for other researchers who have interest and ready to carry-out their research in a topic related to this in future. That is to say they can build on this as a sample. This study could supply learners of Hausa phonology the needed knowledge upon which they become sound and up to date as on these phonological
processes of Hausa language. Finally Hausa experts could use the result of this work to improve on their language teaching skills.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study are presented below;
1. To identify the sounds that is originally non-labialized, but can be labialized.
2. To identify the sounds that is originally non-palatalized, but can be palatalized.
3. To identify the phonological conditions or rules responsible for labialization and Palatalization in Hausa language.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS
This study is designed to answer the following question:
1. What are the kinds of sounds being labialized in Hausa language and under what conditions?
2. What are the kinds of sounds being palatalized in Hausa language and under what conditions?
3. How labialized and palatalized forms are described?
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of this study is on labialization and Palatalization as phonological processes in Hausa language.
1.7 DEFINATION OF TERMS
At this juncture some important terms that would be frequently mentioned in this research work, would be defined so as to make content of the research vivid.
a. Palatal: This is a sound produced when the front of the tongue and the hard palate approach one another or make contact, as in articulation of (j)
b. Bilabial: This is where the lower lip approaches or make contact with the upper one, as in the articulation of (b), (b) and (m)
c. Velar: This is when the back of the tongue and hard of the palate make contact as in the articulation of (k), (ƙ), (n) and (g).
d. Alveolar: This is when the lip of the tongue approaches or makes contact with the alveolar ridge as in the articulation of (t), (d), (l), (r), (n), (s), (z) etc.
e. Palatalization: Means change or process resulting in a non-palatal sound articulated broadly in the palatal. Example in Hausa “kyawo” beauty.
e. Labialization: Is an additional of lip rounding to non-labial consonant sounds in Hausa Example, “sako” message, “sakon” the message.
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