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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - ix
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - x
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - - 1
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - - 6
2.1 Description and external sex differences of Sitophilus
zeamais Motsculsky - - - - - - - - 6
2.2 Mode of damage and Economic importance - - - - 6
2.3 Distribution of maize weevil and host range - - - - 7
2.4 Life cycle of Sitophilus zeamais - - - - - - 7
2.5 Sources of infestation by Sitophilus zeamais - - - - 8
2.6 General Methods of Pest Control in Tropical Stores - - - 9
2.7 Chemical Control and biological control of Maize Weevil - - 10
2.8 Uses of plant oils and botanicals as protectants - - - - 12
2.9 Chemical Compounds of Garlic - - - - - - 14
3.0 Materials and Methods - - - - - - - 16
3.1Culturing of Insects - - - - - - - - 16
3.2 Source of the experimental materials - - - - - 16
3.3 Preparation and Application of Allium sativum - - - - 16
3.4 Combined Application of Allium sativum and Groundnut oil - - 17
3.5 Application of groundnut oil - - - - - - 17
3.6 Mortality Bioassay - - - - - - - - 18
3.7 Progeny Development - - - - - - - 18
3.8 Damage Assessment - - - - - - - - 18
3.9 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - 19
4.0 Results and Discussion - - - - - - - 20
4.1 Insect Mortality - - - - - - - - 20
4.2 Progeny Production - - - - - - - - 22
4.3 Damage Assessment - - - - - - - - 24
4.4 Discussion - - - - - - - - - 25
5.0 Summary and Conclusion - - - - - - - 28
5.1 Recommendation - - - - - - - - 28
References - - - - - - - - - - 29
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1a: Percent mortality of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize at
different hours after treatment with garlic juice - - 20
Table 4.1b: Percent mortality of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize at
different hours after treatment with groundnut oil - - 21
Table 4.1c: Percent mortality of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize
at different hours after treatment with the combination of garlic
juice and groundnut oil - - - - - - 22
Table 4.2a: Effect of garlic juice on progeny of Sitophilus zeamais - 23
Table 4.2b: Effect of groundnut oil on the progeny of Sitophilus zeamais 23
Table 4.2c: Effect of the combination of garlic juice and groundnut oil on
the progeny of Sitophilus zeamais - - - - 24
Table 4.3: Grain damage of maize as
affected by garlic juice - - 24
Sitophilus zeamais is one of the major stored insect pest of maize. Garlic extracts and groundnut oil at different concentrations were evaluated in the laboratory to determine their ability to protect stored maize against Sitophilus zeamais infestation. The garlic extracts were 0,5,10 ml extract while the groundnut oil were 0,5,10,15 and 20ml. The combined effect of garlic extracts and groundnut oil was also tested at different concentrations of 0,5,10,15 and 20ml with 1ml respectively. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. The parameters assessed were mortality, progeny production and damage assessment. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Significant means were compared with least significant difference at 5% probability level. The result showed that groundnut oil at all concentrations caused significant (p<0.05) weevil mortality of 100% in 24 hours of exposure compared to the untreated control while garlic extracts at 5ml and 10ml caused significant (p<0.05) weevil mortality of 45.00% after 96 hours of treatment. The combined effect of garlic extract and groundnut oil also caused significant (p<0.05) weevil mortality of 70% after 96 hours of exposure compared to the control. Progeny emergence of garlic was observed to decrease with increase in concentration level. Higher insect emergence was with garlic extract at 5ml (44.50%) than at 10ml (13.00%). However, groundnut oil and the combined effect of garlic extract and groundnut oil were more toxic to Sitophilus zeamais, there was no progeny development at all the concentrations except untreated control which had significantly higher (p<0.05) progeny emergence. The highest number of insects that emerged was recorded in the untreated control of groundnut oil with 134.50. There was significant difference in terms of grain damage in the garlic extracts whereby the control recorded the highest damage of 55.33%. The garlic extract, groundnut oil and combined effect of the garlic and groundnut oil can be used to protect stored produce against insect pests in developing countries.
Maize (Zea mays) or corn is a major source of dietary carbohydrate as well as the most important cereal in Sub-Saharan Africa (IITA 2009). It has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with total production surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, not all of this maize is consumed directly by humans. Some of the maize production is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup. In Nigeria, maize is the third most produced food crop after cassava and yam (FAOSTAT, 2014). Its productivity is thus critical to raising rural incomes and stimulating broad-based economic growth.
Severe attack by insects is one of the major constraints in profitable production and efficient storage of cereal grains. Sitophilus zeamais Mots is one of the most destructive pest of stored grain and the primary pests of stored maize in the world (Bekele, 2002). This insect has a wide host range with a high capacity to penetrate grain mass and can infest grains in the field as well as in storage and accounts for about 50% of loss in stored maize.
The overall goal of storage is to ensure food security and agricultural commodities are preferred in storage for the attainment of price stabilization, national and domestic food security, provision of raw materials for industry and international trade, provision for a country strategic stock, enhancement of a nation’s international status and provision of seeds (Lale, 2002).
Therefore, cheap and effective methods for reducing Sitophilus zeamais damage are needed in Nigeria. A fundamental knowledge of the biology of Sitophilus zeamais is a prerequisite for devising methods of efficient control. In order to understand the biology of maize weevil, a sound knowledge about its response to the effects of environmental and biological factors is essential. There have been many studies of the biology and behavior of Sitophilus species, mostly on S. granaries and S. oryzea and these have been periodically reviewed by many authors (Richards, 1947, Seagrove, 1951, Longstaff, 1981). In attempt to control this pest, farmers, specifically in Akwa Ibom State commonly hang harvested maize cobs over cooking fire to prevent damage. However, this method is not very effective as losses encountered are still high. Presently, farmers rely heavily on the use of synthetic insecticides to control Sitophilus zeamais and other insect pest of stored products.
Although synthetic insecticides have long been widely used in the control of insect pests, the indiscriminate application of synthetic products has led to various problems. Toxic residues in the treated products, environmental pollution, and growing resistance against insecticides by insects and pests are due to indiscriminate application of synthetic insecticides (Huang et al. 1997). The cost of purchase, residual effect, health hazard to handlers (farmers) and the widespread development of resistance in insect pests are still issues of concern (Zettler and Cuperus, 1990). Furthermore, the sustainability of conventional compounds used to preserve grain is questionable given the high level of poverty present in the rural communities in Africa (Gadzirayi et al,2006). Therefore, there is an urgent need to continue the search for eco-friendly, cheap, sustainable, and safe plant protection agents that will not contaminate food products in their use as grain protectants in storage systems for small holder farmers.
Plants produce secondary metabolites many of which act as natural defense against insects and disease causing microorganisms (Potenza et al; 2004). More than 100,000 secondary metabolites from about 200,000 plant species have been identified which includes alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids which can have insecticidal properties, (Vendramin and Catiglioni, 2000, Potenza et al, 2004). Some plants such as Azadirachta indica (Neem), black peppers (Piper nigrum), West Africa black pepper (Piper guineense) and Betel pepper (piper betel), produce alkaloids like piperine, piperidine and chavicine as secondary metabolites that help plants defend themselves against phytophagous insect, fungi and other pests (Tsao et al, 2002).
Plant oils have been found to be effective in the control of insect pests of stored grains such as Sitophilus zeamais. Many oils are similarly effective in admixture with grain against some stored pests of cereals (Don-Pedro, 1989, Kumar and Okoronkwo,1991). The mode of action of plant oils have been suggested to include action as physical barrier to respiration of insect eggs and young larvae (Credland, 1992; Daniel and Smith, 1994) Vegetable and mineral oils are often available in village shops and are purchased by farmers in some countries e.g. Nigeria for use as seed protectants (Compton et al, 1993).
Botanical products have played important role in traditional storage pest control in the tropics (Hassanali et al.,1990; Niber, 1994; Belmain et al., 2001). Most of them are non-toxic to consumers and are readily available (Hassanali et al.,1990; Niber, 1994; Asawalan et al.,2006). For safety of the consumer, the use of resistant varieties offers the most cost effective control measure against the pests. Maize cobs which are completely covered by the husk are less infested than those whose tips are slightly exposed (Ivbiljaro,2009). Thus, the resistant varieties in combination with botanicals such as garlic, black pepper, citronella in their minimum effective dosages have a potential in keeping the damage caused by weevil below economic injury levels.
This study focused on synergistic effect of garlic and groundnut oil against Sitophilus zeamais with the aim of reducing infestation level and damage caused in stored maize.
The specific objectives were to;
1. To determine the effect of freshly prepared juice from garlic on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize.
2. To determine the effect of freshly prepared juice from garlic on the progeny production of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize.
3. To determine damage assessment of the maize grains.
4. To determine the effect of groundnut oil on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais.
5. To determine the effect of groundnut oil on the progeny of Sitophilus zeamais.
6. To determine the effect of the combined effect of garlic juice and groundnut oil on the mortality of
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