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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
RFID, Radio Frequency Identification is a fundamental and inexpensive technology that enables wireless data transmission [Zeydin Pala ET all, 2007]. This technology has not been very often used in industry due to lack of standardization among the manufacturing companies earlier. RFID technologies are efficient [Zhang, 2005] and secure compare to other network. With RFID, wireless automatic identification takes a very specific form: the object, location, or individual is marked with a unique identifier code contained with an RFID tag, which is in some way attached to or embedded in the target .RFID is not a single product but a comprehensive system, atypical RFID system include three basic elements: RFID tag(transponder), reader (transceiver) and back-end application system (or database), which demands the support of the computer network. The software is used for management, controlling, transaction, operation and maintaining record of the various users.
digital door locking system is also implemented and governed by RFID reader
which authenticate and validate the user and open the door automatically. It
also keeps the record of check-in and check-out of the user. It’s very
important to authenticate the user before
entering into a secure space and RFID provide this
solution. The system enables user to check-in and check-out under fast, secure and convenient conditions. The system include door locking system which open when the user put their tag in contact with reader and the user information matched with the information already stored in database. The RFID controls the opening and closing of the door. In this study we utilize RFID technology to provide solution for secure access of a space while keeping record of the user. We used passive type of RFID here. The passive types of RFID are battery-less and they obtain power to
operate from reader. The major advantages of passive RFID are its cost effective and small in size. Due to above advantages, it is widely used by inventory tracking technology [Goodrum, 2006]. Current antenna technology makes it possible to smaller in size.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To develop our smart door lock there are some sub-problems we need to solve. First we need to study two basic technologies: RFID technology and a network attached door lock. We will combine these technologies to develop our smart door lock. Based upon our study of RFID we must create an application that can run on a smartphone to respond to the RFID reader when it is queried. We need a corresponding application running in either the network attached door lock or in the cloud to query the smartphone via RFID. Given the RFID communication between the reader and the smartphone an application running in either the network attached door lock or in the cloud will determine whether the door should be unlocked or not.
While we have some basic experience with microcontrollers and some knowledge of computer communication systems, we did not yet have any knowledge of RFID technology. Combining these different technologies in one project should take our knowledge to the next level. Our first step in doing this is to connect a microcontroller to the Internet, and then connect a RFID reader to this microcontroller. Note that one of the other areas that we want to explore is the use of Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology, so that we do not need a separate connection from our microcontroller to the building’s power mains.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of the thesis is to design a Wireless door security system in which a Personal Computer can be interfaced with a RFID reader and Microcontroller. Here a Graphical user interface (GUI) is designed to communicate with the overall system.
Other specific objectives include:
1. Data transfer between RFID reader and Personal computer (PC) using Java. The data which is read by RFID reader when the card is tapped on the RFID reader is send to the PC through serial transmission. To access this data a database is designed on the PC using Java.
2. Data transfer from PC to ATMEGA32 microcontroller for Door Access.
The RFID Card number which is tracked by the RFID reader is now compared with the data present in the database. If the Card number is present in the database then the PC will send a signal to the ATMEGA through the Java programming for Door Access.
RFID reader will be placed outside the door and the microcontroller will be placed inside the building where it cannot be modified or access by someone outside the door. The microcontroller will be connected to a server via a Power over Ethernet (PoE) capable switch. This network connection provides power to the microcontroller, RFID reader, and electric strike plate (or motor to turn the latch).
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work is narrowed to CuzzyTech Company. It deals with the Design, Documentation and Implementation of an RFID access control door security system. The system will be managed through a website where the administrator of the lock can create electronic keys and manage the lock. Note that these keys can be designed to work only during a specific time or even a one-time-only key.
1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
2 The following are some factors, which acted as an impeachment or constraints to the progress of the project work;
3 a. Lack of Documented materials: It was difficult to start the project initially because reference materials at my disposal are limited.
4 b. Financial constraint is another factors that limited the researcher in owning out this project effectively.
5 c. Reluctance by the respondents in giving information fearing that the information sought would be used to intimidate them or print a negative image about them.
To counter this, I carried a pilot study to establish the possible cause of non-compliance in filling the questionnaires and adjusted the questionnaire accordingly. Also I encouraged the respondents to participate without holding back the information they might be having as the research instruments would not bear their names.
1.6ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This thesis is divided into five chapters.
· Chapter 1 gives an overview of what the project is about. It will give the reader basic background material so that the reader can understand the concepts that will be subsequently used in this project.
· Chapter 2 will also summarize some of the related work relevant to this project.
· Chapter 3 covers the methods used in the project to achieve our goals which contains a range of both software and hardware tools.
· Described in chapter 4 is how we tested our prototype to see if it fulfilled our purposes with the project. Since we did not accomplish all of our goals,
· Chapter 5 reviews our conclusion and describes what we have left undone in addition to suggesting what could be done in future work to build upon this project.
This research work will be guided by the following research questions:
i. Why proposing a RFID door lock system. Is it really important?
ii. How will the proposed computer-based system affect the existing conventional system?
iii. Is the system strong enough in preventing unauthorized access?
iv. Does it address a short-term or a long-term security need?
v. Do the users have access to needed computer and communications equipment?
1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS
· Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): Is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person.
· Secure AccessModule (or Secure Application Module) is based on Smart Card Integrated circuits and is used to enhance the security and cryptography performance in devices, commonly in devices needing to perform secure transactions, such as payment terminals.
· An electronic lock: (or electric lock) is a locking device which operates by means of electric current. Electric locks are sometimes stand-alone with an electronic control assembly mounted directly to the lock
· Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere.
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