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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

According to Chang, K. T. (2008), Geographic Information Retrieval System (GIRS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIRS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information a study which refers to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information system. In simplest terms GIRS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology.

A geographical information retrieval system can be thought of as a system which digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas that may be jurisdictional, purpose or application- oriented. Generally, a GIRS can be custom designed for an organization. Hence, a GIS developed for an application jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIRS that has been developed for some other application, jurisdiction, enterprise or purpose. What goes beyond a GIRS is a spatial infrastructure, a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

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In general sense, the term GIRS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares and displays geographic information for informed decision making. GIRS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user –created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps and present the result of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications and systems.

The link between geography and information technology can not to a very large extent be over- emphasized.

Using Enugu State tourism board as a case study has helped to give a comprehensive understanding of the importance and the need of a geographic information system, as it is believed, information technology has a significant role in geographic information system and high level of expectations would and is already being demanded from its use both in Nigeria and the world at large.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In our daily lives as humans, most of our endeavors involve moving from one location to another for one thing or the other. A problem emerges when there is no proper direction or a system as to give accurate direction in locating our destination, what the said destination contains and what is has to offer. This is the problem the state has as concerning tourism, whereby a good number of tourists

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(most especially tourists visiting for the very first time) and other individuals wanting to visit tourist sites in the state but cannot do so because of the lack of a well detailed system to provide them (tourists) with an accurate geographic information system as to how to locate these sites within the state.

Due to the lack of an accurate geographic information retrieval system as far as tourism is concerned, most tourists are discouraged from exploring these tourist locations within the state, this in turn hampers the positive impact that tourism is meant to have on the development in the state and the Nigerian society at large.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To examine the existing / current system in regards to how geographic information for tourism is provided for tourists in and outside the state.

2.To improve on the already existing system by designing a geographic information retrieval system that is well detailed and easily accessible.

3.This study also seeks to help in broadening the scope of tourism in the state through providing a comprehensive geographic information retrieval system.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is to show that a link between geography and other professions can be created on the platform of information technology. i.e. to show

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that with information technology the problem of location can and is solved to a very large extent.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study is limited to tourist locations and hotels within the state using the Enugu state tourism board as a case study in view of providing / improving on the existing geographic information system of the board for tourism in the state.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Time was a major constraint faced during the research for this project work and limited the effort in developing a much more comprehensive package needed in the design and implementation of the geographic information retrieval system.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

GEOGRAPHY: Geography is a science that deals with the distribution and arrangement of all elementsordgeographyof wasthe ea adopted in the 200s BC by the Greek S description.‟

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INFORMATION SYSTEM: An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM: A “geog informationRS) issystem”acomputer-based(GItoolthat allows you to create, manipulate, analyze, store and display information based on its location

LOCATION: The position, site or sitting of somebody or something.

MAP: A diagrammatic drawing of something such as a route or area made to show the location or how to get there.

TOURISM: Travel to benefit from a particular service or activity that is unavailable at home.

COMPUTER : An electronic device that can accept data/ information inform of input , process the data /information in order to produce an output and also has the capability to store the information for future use.

DATA: Data refers to raw or unprocessed information.

SOFTWARE: This is the logically written instruction that controls the operations of the hardware.

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HARDWARE: This is the physical components of computer system and other geographic tools or devices.

DATABASE: This is the collection of related data/ information stored mostly in a central location.

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD): Software programs for the design, drafting and presentation of graphics. Originally designed for manufacturing and drawing, now also widely used for mapping.

OPERATING SYSTEM: A series of computer programs which control the operations of the computer itself. Application programs such as GIS software run under an operating system. Examples of operating system include UNIX, VMS, DOS etc.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INFORMATION SYSTEM

Information system has been defined in terms of two perspectives: one relating to its function; the other relating to its structure. From a functional perspective; an information system is a technologically implemented medium for the purpose of recording, storing and disseminating linguistic expressions as well as for the supporting of inference making. From a structural perspective, an information system consists of a collection of people, processes, data, models, technology and partly formalized language, forming a cohesive structure which serves some organizational purpose or function.

The functional definition has its merit in focusing on what actual users –from a conceptual point of view –do with the information system while using it. They communicate with experts to solve a particular problem. The structural definition makes clear that IS are socio- technical systems i.e. systems consisting of humans, behavior rules and conceptual and technical artifacts.

An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. In addition to supporting

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decision –making, coordination and control, information systems may also help managers and workers analyze problems, visualize complex subjects and create new products. Three activities in an information system produce the information that organizations need to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems and create new products or services. These activities are input, processing and output. Input captures or collects raw data within the organization or from its external environment. Processing converts this raw input into a more meaningful form. Output transfers the processed information to the people who will use it pr to the activities for which it will be used. Information systems also require feedback, which is output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage.

The diagram below gives a graphical illustration if what an information system is.

The Components of an information system are as follows;

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v Resources of people : ( end –users and IS specialists, system analyst, programmers, data administrators etc)

Hardware: (physical computer equipment and associate device, machines and media).

Software: (programs and procedures).

v  Data : ( data and knowledge bases) and

 Networks : (communications media and network support)

2.2  INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Information technology can defined as the plat form on which information system thrives or functions, without the technological aspect of information, an information system cannot function efficiently. Information technology refers to the technical devices such as machines or various devices like the monitor , cpu, keyboard , mouse and also internal hardware devices such as the RAM ,hard drive or hard disk, mother board etc which all work hand in hand .

The Information Technology Association of America defined information technology as “the study, design, level support or management of computer based information systems

Without information technology it is almost impossible to have an efficient or working geographic information retrieval system, in fact it is a basic requirement.

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Information technology is a major requirement for a geographic information retrieval system to function and to be available to anyone and at any point in time.

Information Technology can also be broadly defined as the collection of computer systems used by an organization. Information technology in its narrow definition refers to the technological side of an information system. Sometimes, though, the term information technology is also used interchangeably with information system.

One of the major roles of information technology is its being a major facilitator of organizational activities and processes. That role is becoming much more important as time passes.

Human beings have being storing, retrieving ,manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term" INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY" in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in Harvard business review. Authors Harold J. Levitt and Thomas L. Whistler commented as at then that the new technology did not have a single established name.

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of information technology and of course its development. These phases include the pre –mechanical (3000 BC- 1450AD),

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