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1.1Background of the study
The concept of worker participation represents a popular theme in the analysis of the world of work among scholars in the fields of industrial sociology, industrial relations as well as management (Noah, 2OO2:2). It refers to any arrangement which is designed to involve employees (workers) in decision making within the workplace. This implies that rather than saddling only a group within the enterprise (for instance, management) with the responsibility of making decision, all those who are to be affected by these decisions (including the workers) would be involved in its formulation and implementation.
In recent times, scholars have directed increasing attention to the issue of worker participation and its broader corollary, industrial democracy (Mankidy, 1984:239; Yesufu, 1984:20; Adenumi; 1993:14; Verma and Syha; 1991:42; Kester;1999:28;). These concerns reflect a growing interest in finding ways to make work more meaningful and satisfying to the workers. This rest on the belief that the organization goals of high productivity and harmonious industrial relations are best achieved when the higher level of the human elements (workers) are satisfied.
Worker participation implies arrangements designed to involve workers in the enterprises decision making process. This allows workers involvement in the initiation, formulation and implementation of reasons within the enterprise. The concept can also be understood in terms of a new approach to industry and society in which people want to be interested with the king of decisions which have direct bearing on them.
MacGregor (1960:40) contends that worker participation consist basically in creating opportunity under suitable conditions for people to influence decisions which affect them. It is a special case of delegation in which the subordinate gain greater control, greater freedom of choice with respect to bridging the communication gap between the management and the workers. This serves to create a sense of belonging among the workers as well as a conducive environment in which both the workers would voluntarily contribute to healthy industrial relations.
The implication of these society, rising education and wider contact among people resulting from the break-up barriers was to shift these aspirations to a more organization of work greater opportunity for personal development and under scope in exercise of initiatives.
Specifically, the refusal of work organization to recognize the human factor in industrial production through greater involvement of employees in its management decision making would tend to create several human problems in this setting. A worker is a social being who brings his personality, hopes, aspirations, anxieties, feelings and attitude to the work place. He seeks satisfaction and meaning in his work as he does in other spheres of life.
Despite this recognition, there has been no study on the impact of worker participation in decision making and productivity in manufacturing company in Lagos metropolis. This paper or research work attempts to fill this gap by providing data on the level of worker involvement in decision making and other factors which aid or hinder the observed level of participation in the two manufacturing companies for the purpose of understanding the type of participatory system, the general attitude of workers towards worker participation and the implication of worker participation to worker and their organization.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There is no democratic participation of workers in the decision making process in most of our organizations.
Consequently, the workers are forced to cope with the autocratic style of government.
Specifically, the refusal of management of organizations to recognise the human element in industrial production through greater involvement of employees in its management decision-making would lead to create serious human problems. The workers are restricted and denied the opportunity to utilize their potentials fully and effectively. Under such management control, the employees engage in negative behaviours like absenteeism, apathy, low commitment and low
1.3 Objectives of the study
The central objective of the study is to determine the level of worker participation in management decision making in the manufacturing company, with specific reference to Nigerian Bottling company plc and Nigeria Breweries plc in Lagos.
Other objectives include the following:
i. To ascertain if and to what extent workers are involved in the decision making process of their work place.
ii. Empirically determine the challenges to worker participation in decision making in organization.
iii. To examine the impact of employee participation on job satisfaction.
iv. To determine the effect of participation on employee performance.
v. To find out the impact of employee performance in organisation growth.
vi. To determine factors which facilitate or hinder the observed level of participation of employee in organization growth.
vii. To make recommendations based on the research findings.
1.4 Research Questions:
To guide the conduct of this research, the following questions are asked:-
i. To what extent are workers involved in the decision-making process of their work places?
ii. What are the challenges to worker participation in decision-making in organization?
iii. Does employee participation has any impact on job satisfaction? iv. Does employee participation has any effect on employee performance?
v. Does employee performance has any impact on organisation growth?
vi. What factors facilitate or hinder the observed level of worker participation in organisation growth?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Streamlined to the aforementioned objectives and research questions, the following null hypothesis have been formulated and shall be subjected to
suitable empirical test.
Null Hypothesis 1
Ho1: The extent of worker involvement in the decision making process of their work-places is low.
Null Hypothesis 11
Ho1: Worker participation in the decision making process co not pose any challenge in organization.
Null Hypothesis 111
Ho1: Employee participation has no impact on job satisfaction.
Null Hypothesis 1v
Ho1: Participation has no effect on employee performance.
Null Hypothesis v
Ho1: Employee performance has no impact on organization growth.
1.6 Significance of study
This study is a thorough research into an assessment of the impact of working participation in decision-making and organizational growth in manufacturing company with specific reference to Nestle Nig plc.
This study is very significant because it is anchored on the need to raise the productivity level of workers through appropriate motivational techniques. The involvement of workers in management decision making is considered as a means for inducing motivation in the workers leading to positive work attitude and high productivity. This study is also deemed necessary in view of the benefit of worker participation in organization and the society at large. Worker participation been seen as capable of providing workers conducive work environment, opportunity to exercise their innate potentials and willingness to pursue corporate goals of the organization.
The study will contribute to the enrichment of literature on an assessment of the impact of worker participation in management decision and organizational growth.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This work covers an assessment of the impact of work participation in management decision making and organizational growth in manufacturing companies with specific reference to the Nestle Nig plc in Lagos, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study:
During this research work a lot of constraints and limitations were encountered some of these constraints were usual constraints encountered during the course of such academic exercise, while some were unusual and burring.
Collection of primary data for this study was a major constraint as the researcher has to be processes on field personally in all the data collection processes.
Financial constraints also posed a major problem/ limitation during the investigation. The researcher would have wanted to carry on the same type of investigation in similar manufacturing companies within the same industry but for financial constraints. Time is another limitation encountered during the course of study. Time constraints have forced the researcher to concentrate on the assessment of the impact of worker participation in management decision making and organization growth rather than extending it to the entire human resources management practices. Sometimes, secondary data collected were not reliable, hence they were rejected.
1.A lot of time was spent on the selection and examination of secondary data for the study.
2. Delay in filling and returning questionnaires by respondents.
3.Smallness of sample due partly to limited financial resources.
4. Finally, lack of significant research and literature.
1.9 Definition of Terms:
Employees- A person who is paid to work for somebody
Democracy- Fair and equal treatment of everyone in an organization
Involvement- The act of taking part in something
Employee participation- This is the process whereby employees are involved in decision making, rather than simply acting on others.
Productivity- This is a performance measure encompassing both efficiency and effectiveness
Work- Activity one does to earn a livelihood.
Job satisfaction- As a pleasurable or positive emotion states resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experience.
Employee commitment- This is referred to as congruence between the goals of the individual and the organisation whereby the individual identifies with and extends effort on behalf of the general goals of the organization.
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