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The importance of employee job satisfaction in organizations cannot be over emphasized.
The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of gender difference on job
satisfaction of employees in Fidelity Bank plc, Nigeria. This research carried out an
investigation as to whether a gap in gender exists among employees in relationship with
job satisfaction. There has been a divergence in opinion as to whether a link exists
between gender and job satisfaction as some studies found no co relation between these
two variables while others found a relationship between the two variables. This
dissertation made a modest attempt to explore the reasons for the differences. Data was
collected by the means of job satisfaction questionnaires and interviews which was used
to identify the employees’ level of satisfaction. The questionnaires were administered to
sixty employees and 40 were returned giving a response rate of 67%. Out of the 40
respondents, 20 were men and 20 women. These employees were grouped into various
categories such as gender, age, educational level and tenure. The factors that have an
impact on job satisfaction were examined. The data obtained differentiated three aspects
of job satisfaction which includes; the work environment, feeling of responsibility (under
which the issue of pay and promotion are entailed) and the job itself (opportunity for
advancement, job responsibilities). The findings show a significant difference in job
satisfaction of both male and female employees in the bank. The overall satisfaction for
employees was on average however, men were more satisfied with pay, opportunity for
advancement and women more satisfied with team work and relationship with coworkers.
Results also show a relationship exists between two biographical variables, (tenure,
educational level) and job satisfaction. The two variables explained reasons for the gap in
job satisfaction between male and female employees.
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Dedication -- - - - - - - - - ii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - v
1.0 Overview - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Study Background - - - - - - -
1.1.1 Definition of Terms - - - - - - -
1.2 Aims - - - - - - - - -
1.3 Objectives - - - - - - - -
1.4 Statement of the Research Problem - - - - -
1.5 Study Rationale - - - - - - -
1.6 Methodology - - - - - - - -
1.7 Scope of Study - - - - - - -
1.8 Limitations of the Study - - - - - -
1.9 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
1.9.1 Dissertation Structure - - - - - - -
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
2.1 Job Satisfaction Defined - - - - - -
2.2 Theories of Job Satisfaction - - - - - -
2.2.1 Two-Factor Theory - - - - - - -
2.2.2 Job Characteristics Model - - - - - -
2.2.3 Equity Theory - - - - - - -
2.3 Job Satisfaction and the Job Itself - - - - -
2.4 Job Satisfaction and Gender difference - - - -
2.5 Job Satisfaction and Cross-Cultural Differences - - -
2.6 Job Satisfaction and Organizational Culture - - - -
2.7 Job Satisfaction and Performance - - - - -
2.8 Consequences of Job Satisfaction -- - - - -
2.8.1 Absenteeism - - - - - - - -
2.8.2 Turnover - - - - - - - -
2.9 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
3.1 Research Definition - - - - - - -
3.1.1 Research Purpose - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Philosophy - - - - - - -
3.2.1 Positivism - - - - - - - -
3.2.2 Phenomenology - - - - - - -
3.3 Research Approach -- - - - - - -
3.3.1 Ethnographic Approach - - - - - -
3.3.2 Grounded Theory - - - - - - -
3.3.3 Survey - - - - - - - -
3.3.4 Case Study - - - - - - - -
3.3.5 Focus Groups - - - - - - - -
3.4 Sources of Data - - -- - - - -
3.5 Primary Source - - - - - - -
3.5.1 Interviews - - - - - - - -
3.5.2 Questionnaires - - - - - - -
3.6 Qualitative and Quantitative Data - - - - -
3.7 Methods Adopted for this Study - - - - -
3.7.1 Interviews - - - - - - - -
3.7.2 Questionnaires - - - - - - -
3.8 Secondary Sources - - - - - - -
3.8.1 Sources Adopted - - - - - - -
3.9 Research Limitations - - - - - - -
3.9.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - -
4.1.1 Biographical Results of Questionnaire - - - -
4.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
5.1 Questionnaire findings - - - - - -
5.1.1 The Working Environment - - - - - -
5.1.2 Feeling of Responsibility - - - - - -
5.1.3 The Job Itself - - - - - - - -
5.2 Interview Findings - - - - - - -
5.3 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
6.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
6.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - - -
6.2 Possible Recommendation - - - - - -
6.3 Directions for Future Research - - - - -
6.4 Summary - - - - - - - -
Human resource management varies across different countries on the basis of cultural,
political, economic and social settings, and these results in diverse firms of practice. The
disparity in human resource management modes of operations in organizations ensure
that initiatives produced by their management teams are geared towards developing and
retaining employees because they have been recognized as the most vital and competitive
factor in the business environment of today. As such, the topic “Job satisfaction” has
attracted a huge attention as well as argument in recent times. While most of its attributes
have been studied, analyzed and validated mostly in developed countries, much less is
understood about job satisfaction in developing economies such as Nigeria.
Right from the beginning of history, women have always been seen as subordinates to
men. Due to this reason, men and women differ in personalities and also tend to differ in
various areas in n organizations such as in their job mentation and the way they are
treated. These areas such as the issues of pay, supervision, working conditions and many
more are being considered in this research. However, not everyone wants the same act of
a work situation.
Studies previously carried out in some western economies offer basic understanding in
the topic area – Job Satisfaction and Gender Difference. Despite huge amount of
literature on job satisfaction, the relationship between job satisfaction and gender has not
fully been understood. Questions are still asked; questions such as:
- Does gender indeed affect job satisfaction? How and why?
- Is there really a gender gap in job satisfaction?
- Are men indeed more satisfied than women in organizations?
These are, but a few of the questions which could be asked relating to gender issues and
job satisfaction. However, it can be assumed that different variables could be responsible
for the level of job satisfaction among employees of which the presence of these variables
would lead to a degree of satisfaction. This satisfaction also tends to cause an
improvement in organizations’ efficiency.
Job satisfaction of both genders need to be understood in organizations. In addition, it is
of importance to investigate the approaches to be adopted in order to lessen these
differences. Hence, aside this dissertation being a modest attempt to fill this gap by
examining gender difference, on job satisfactions of employees in Fidelity Bank Plc,
Nigeria, it will contribute to literature by examining various reasons for gender
This study followed up the research topic submitted and approved on March 23, 2010.
This chapter will be outline as follows: the background of the study, its aims and
objectives, statement of research problem, study rationale, definition of key terms,
methodology, and scope of study, limitations, and finally, the dissertation structure
The background of the study which IS Nigeria can be traced to Western capitalism and it
has been said to be one of Africa’s most populous and popular country and its leading oil
In past times, the economy of Nigeria was dependent and still dependent on the capital
intensive oil industries which contribute a lot to the government revenue. However, there
has been an upsurge of various industries such as telecommunications, manufacturing,
freight, export and import industries, the banking industry and a lot more. In every
country’s economic development, the bank plays a very important role.
Since the Nigerian economy is dependent on the increase or decrease in earnings from the
oil industries, the bank tends to have high uncertainty avoidance, HOF Stede (1980),
meaning they are unable to predict and make long terms plans. In addition, the economic
and political circumstances in Nigeria where these banks operate have been unsteady
over the years. Pre-consolidation era of Nigeria banks was a period the Nigeria banking
industry experienced stagnancy in regards to profitability and well-grounded capital base
and reserve with the central bank. Banks then struggled with unethical practices,
incoherence in actions and absence of good team work..
However, this is not to say that the industry does not have its challenges at present,
though rapid improvement has been visible in every aspect most especially the stability
of the sector due to changes in structure and liquidity/capital base.
The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) as the Apex Bank regulates the practices and
operations of the consolidated banks of which Fidelity Bank Plc is included. This body
has also ensured remarkable changes in recent times in terms of ownership structure,
extensive branch networking, depth, and breadth of operations and adoption of high
information technology which are all driven by globalization. Today, the Nigerian
banking system has worked and still working to be attaining global financial banking
Nigeria organizations generally tend to show more concern for productivity, with a
structure characterized by top-down communication and minimal employee involvement.
There is also great emphasis an extrinsic reward to attract and retain employee. Due to
the polychromic culture. Nigeria portrays, however, the issue of rewards, pay and
promotion are earned through having the right connections with top management rather
than hard work. While productivity in organizations is of high importance, employee
satisfaction in the work place also needs attention as employee satisfaction enhances
organizational profitability. As stated by one of the directors in Lloyds Tsd Bank,
Crookall (2007), ‘material reward and remuneration are just basic factors for employees
to derive satisfaction because the working environment needs to be supportive of an
employee’s development’.
In the Nigerian culture, gender issues acts as one determinant factor on how employees
are rated most times, either expressed or implied. Women are generally seen and easily
accepted as homemakers, rather than as independent when it comes to economic, social,
or political setting.
However, in recent times, there has been tremendous change as women folk are now in
professions/vocations initially managed by men. A notable change in the banking
industry is the increase in female employees, unlike in the past, when it was mainly
dominated by men. Imoukhuede (2001), in a study carried out, concluded that Nigeria
women in management positions of both the financial and banking sectors were a mere
twelve percent of the working population.
Several authors also noted gender differences in the assignment of roles to employees.
Statistics have shown, in Nigeria, that as at 2007 at the inception of late President Uman
Musa Yardua of Nigeria, only eleven percent of women were appointed and given key
roles in the public office(s), ( /20080408 229.html?page = 2)
But in recent times, Nigeria women have made a visible development in breaking the
glass ceiling by getting into top management positions and displaying qualities, which
were otherwise thought to be peculiar to the men folk. This has caused the gradual
disappearance of the assumption that certain roles are meant only for men. The
contribution of women in the economy of Nigeria can no longer be ignored.
The Nigerian culture and value system have had a great effect on the work environment
whereas population of women in the work sector had been less. The issue of gender
inequality has been on the increase especially with respect to pay package and working
conditions. Employees’ job satisfaction could be determined by these factors and on how
employees perceive their jobs compared with their expectations.
It would be of importance to clarify whether, or not, gender differences exist in the
banking sector and also justify if job satisfaction for men is comparable to that of women
and vice- versa. The aims and objectives of this study are stated below.
1.1.1 Definition of Terms
The study made use of a number of terms. Definition is below:
Gender: According to online dictionary of social sciences, gender refers to the cultural
definition of various roles and behaviour attributed to men and women.
Gender inequality: This is the difference or variation between men and women in terms
of allocating resources, status, power and position
Discrimination: According to the Wbster’s dictionary (2008), discrimination means an
unfair treatment of a person or a group based in the basis of prejudice. In terms of gender,
it means treating a man more favorably than a woman or vice versa.
Overall job satisfaction: Specter (1997) defines job satisfaction as “the degree to which
people like their jobs and the different aspects of their jobs”. Overall job satisfaction is
the general fulfillment an employee derives from a job. This term, however, will be
defined further in the literature review.
Job Dissatisfaction: Gruneberg (1981) suggested it is the matching of an individual’s
expectation to what a job offers that determines job satisfaction. Where these
expectations are not satisfied, there will be a job dissatisfaction.
Motivation: this is what instigates a person to behave a certain way. Armstrange (2006)
describes it as a goal directed behavior which is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal
and a valued reward.
Culture: Is a concept used to describe a rationale for a people’s behaviour. According to
Hofstede (1991), it can be defined as the collective programming of the mind which
distinguishes the members of one organization from another.
Communication: This is the exchange of information between two or more employees or
groups of employees in an organization.
Personal variable: this is simply an attribute on which cases vary. Bryman (2001) is of the
opinion that these ‘cases’ could be individuals, organizations and nation
1.2 AIMS
For the purpose of this research, there are two primary aims:
i. To identify factors that affect employee job satisfaction;
ii. To investigate the impact of gender differences on job satisfaction
The objectives of the study which would assist in attaining the aims include:
i. To evaluate whether or not male employees are more satisfied than their
female counterparts (and vice versa) compared in similar roles.
ii. To research theories, models and concepts concerning roles in the work place.
iii. To identify factors that lead to job satisfaction among bank staff.
iv. To offer recommendations with a view to enhancing employee job
Extensive literature on gender an job satisfaction exists and often times, it is related to
characteristics such as pay and reward, promotion, supervision, education and
relationship with co-workers. Okpara (2005) reported that female bankers were less
satisfied with their jobs than their male counterparts in terms of pay and reward whereas
AI – Ajimi (2006) suggested that employee gender has no effect on job satisfaction.
Furthermore, other researchers have established different views on this topic therefore,
no general conclusions have been made as to whether gender has an impact on job
In developing countries such as Nigeria, management in organizations hardly understands
the attitude of employees to their job functions. The problem here is to assess the
influence of gender on overall job satisfaction of employees in Fidelity Bank Plc, not
based on only a particular variable but on every aspect as a whole.
The reason for undertaking this research is due to the fact that it would be of great
importance to understand the aspects that are involved in job satisfaction as literature has
confirmed that an increase in job satisfaction lead to increase in organization’s
productivity. This research is a modest attempt to find out if gender difference exists in
Fidelity Bank Plc, and if it does, the study intends to investigate the impact of these
differences on employee job satisfaction as well as factors which determine job satisfaction
of Fidelity Bank Plc employees. Thus, based on the findings of this study, possible
strategies and recommendations will be proffered and provided to the management of
Fidelity Bank Plc for improvement on job satisfaction of their employees.
Furthermore, which has been learnt and knowledge acquired on the course of undertaking
the MBA, Management Programe of the University of Nigeria over the past months.
Therefore, a personal rationale for undertaking this research is to apply the theory gained
into practice.
The research will be carried out using a combination of primary and secondary data. The
primary sources will include the use of questionnaires and interview. The secondary
sources will include literature surveys, existing articles, journal, and related test books.
The interview will involve personal communication with a number of managers.
Telephone interviews will be carried out initially with line managers informing them
about the proposed research, thereafter, a cover letter will be sent at electronically.
The methodology and statistical methods used, to analyze collected data will be discussed
in depth in chapter three
The study will focus on one branch of Fidelity Bank Plc with Anambra State. The bank
was incorporated as a private Limited Liability Company in 1987, and commenced
operations as a merchant Bank between 1988 – 1989.
Between 1999 – 2001, it was registered as a Public Limited Liability, converted to
Commercial Bank and licensed as universal bank. In 2005, it was listed and quoted on the
Nigerian Stock Exchange and in 2006; it raised equity through rights, Initial Public Offer
(IPO) and private placements and consolidated with former FSB Int’l and many Bank Plc
to form the enlarged Fidelity Bank Plc. In 2007, it fully integrated as one bank running on
one banking platform. Presently, it is among one of the fastest growing new generation
banks in Nigeria with 167 branch networks.
A number of sixty employees will be handed questionnaires and interviews will be
conducted with a number of managers. This sample sizes has been chosen as it seemed
appropriate considering the time frame within which the research has to be completed.
This should produce suitable results that will lead to data analysis which will be seen in
chapter four of this dissertation.
This study will contribute to the growing of literature; nevertheless, it will not be without
its limitations. The encountered limitations, however, will be discussed in the
methodology chapter of this study.
In conclusion, this chapter draws attention to the fact that the issue of job satisfaction is
of great importance in organizations if they are to meet their vision and mission
statements. In addition, to highlights the fact that gender inequality exists. Although a
conclusion has not been made as to the issue of greater job satisfaction for men than
women and vice versa, this chapter provides an understanding that this study is a modest
attempt to fill the gap. The issue of gender inequality has no general solution; this
chapter however, suggests the importance for organizational managements to constantly
look for ways to reduce the high rate of gender gaps.
This chapter explained the background of the Nigerian banking industry as well as the
organizational structure. Furthermore, it enlightened the reality that job satisfaction of
employees could be influenced by some factors of which both the national and
organization culture are involved. It lays emphasis on the importance of job satisfaction
of employees as it could have a positive effect on the organization’s productivity.
1.9.1 Dissertation structure
This study is structured into five chapters which are summarized below:
Chapter one: Current chapter, the introduction
Chapter two: This chapter undertakes a critical review of related literature of gender and
job satisfaction of employees. It covers relevant related theories and issues that are of
importance in understanding this topic area.
Chapter three: This chapter is the methodology and covers the approach used in
collecting both primary and secondary data stating their advantages and disadvantages. In
addition, it covers methods chosen for analysis of data and limitations during the course
of collecting data.
Chapter four: This chapter covers the statistical analysis and findings of data gathered
from questionnaires and interviews. This will develop the relationship of gender and job
satisfaction and its implication to the mentioned research questions.
Chapter five: This chapter summarizes the study and implications of the study based on
the data analysis. It also consists of the author’s recommendations and opportunities for
further research.

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