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Unemployment is a universal phenomenon which most countries in the world today whether the developed or a developing country have at one time or the other faced.

With the problems of how to cope with the growth of an unemployment rate, high rate of inflation, balance of payment urbanization and the increasing population particularly Nigeria.

There is no doubt that unemployment is a major economic problem which cut across all nation of the world. The extent and consequence of this global phenomenon are known but dealing with them are arduous. To this regard, it has become necessary for the government of this country, corporative bodies and organization in every society. Nigeria inclusive are trying to use both protective and accommodating economic measure to find solutions to these social economics challenges of our time.

Since after independence, Nigeria has been faced with a risk in the high rate of unemployment. This is due to continue increase in the country, population and expansion of the educational system.

 Another notable problem is a large number of youth between the age of eighteen (18) and forty (40) years that are found almost everywhere in the country roadside without payful employment. 

Economics have fashioned out different economic model to remedy this evil in our society but such policy perspective and measure have not yield the future possibility result.

Unemployment as mention earlier is not just Nigeria affair it is a global problem that is worldwide. This could be attributed to the level of technological advancement.

Generally speaking, unemployment is an economic and social evil which no individual prays to experience. This problem of unemployment which is now experience in Nigeria is a serious social economic problem affecting the lives of the people of Ethiope west L.G.A of delta state, Nigeria.

Unemployment brings about what the economics called “vicious circle of poverty which means a circle of high productivity leading to low per capital information per head”.

In this study, effort is made to look into the causes, effect, and possible solutions to the problems of unemployment in Nigeria most especially in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state, Nigeria.

In most cases, the emphasis is on the able bodies’ personnel, hence those who are handicap.

Unemployment has affected sectors of the economy, first agriculture with the increase in mechanization which has put many people out of work, though this can not be said to be true in the case of Ethiope West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria in general, as there is little or no evidence of mechanization in its agricultural sector. Then the industry which has been affected by the energy crises since seventies and now the service sector-commerce and education which has previously considered as unassembled.

Through personal observation, the investigator has found out that unemployment in the study area is as a result of low rate of industrialization, wide spread of illiteracy, preference of poor capital formation in addition poor utilization of available resources.

The reasons for this problem can be attributed to the non utilization of the nations resources myopic view of the economic planner from the discussion above, there is no doubt that unemployment in Nigeria have some effect which are identifiable especially in Ehtiope West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria.  One of such inherence problem is the reduction in national productivity. This output which is the employment could have contributed to the fact that most perishable of all factor of production is labour, once lost. It is lost forever and can never be regained.

This low productivity leads to low standard of living of the citizens. Hence everybody is worried about this problem.

In order to remedy this problem in Nigeria, many developmental plans has been put in place but one ability of such plans has proved to universities. So much have been said about unemployment but finding a lasting solution is difficult, to this regard, the government, cooperative bodies and organization are constantly in search for possible solutions and it is against the promises that the investigator has chosen such courage in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state, Nigeria in General.


The Nigerian economy has been faced with serious unemployment problem for years. There is not only an economic problem but it also has a social and economic implication in Nigeria economy as well.

The unemployment of the daily bread provider of the family has serious socials consequences which could lead to an ugly situation of the family. Also in a political setup, it has been cited as one of the major causes for coup as well as social unrest in nation.

Therefore, the essence of the study is to identify that factor responsible for the unemployment in Nigeria most especially in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state, and justification for saying that unemployment is caused by the following reasons:

a        Illiteracy

b        Poor utilization process of available resources.

c        Poor capital formation

d        Low rate of industrialization in the study area.

Hence, some preferred solutions and recommendation to both policies makers and government on how to attain a stable Gainful employment in Nigeria, most especially in the Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state, Nigeria.


The purpose of this study is to identify the various causes and effects of unemployment in Nigeria economic. It will also bring possible solutions to the identified problems. Unemployment is a society plan which if not checked, it will lead to disaster to this regard, the  investigator has chosen this study in order to find and address the problem in general, most especially Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state will be relieved of the causes which is associated with unemployment.


In order to solve the problems of unemployment in Nigeria, most especially Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state, this questions will be useful to this study.

i         Why do job seekers not able to find job?

ii        What is the causes of the increase rate of unemployment cases in Nigeria,              most especially in Ehtiope West L.G.A of Delta State?

iii       Why is armed robbery cases on the increase in Nigeria?

iv       Does unemployment have any emotional effect on job seekers in Nigeria?

v        Why is there a general state of dissatisfaction among workers in Nigeria       most especially Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state?

iv       What is responsible of the increasing rate of broken home in the study         area, i.e. Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state?


The hypothesis shall base on the assumption that unemployment in Nigeria cut across the ages of 18 years to 40 years and 45 years to 60 years.

Also that the government is the main causes of unemployment in Nigeria, other factors includes:

a        Low Industrialization and low level of illiteracy are attributed to unemployment problem in Nigeria, most especially Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state.

b        Poor utilization process of available resources and poor capital formation are also attributed to the problem of unemployment in Nigeria.

c        Lack of sound economic of planning by the country is also responsible for unemployment in Nigeria.

d        Inadequate numbers of industries compared with the population of the country is also responsible for the problem of unemployment in Nigeria, most especially in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state.

e        Urban migration and population deregulation of the Nigeria economy is also another problem of unemployment in Nigeria.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between illiteracy and



The consequences of unemployment in Nigeria, most especially in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state cannot be over emphasized, against this background, the government and other concerned persons have written articles, journals in addition to seminars and conferences, but these cannot be said to have assessed the problems exhaustively in Nigeria, most especially Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state.

Hence, this study will add to the existing knowledge while hoping that the economic planners will find this study useful in their field.


Unemployment is a general problem in Nigeria, also more consideration and particular attention will be paid to Ehtiope west L.G.A which generalization will be based furthermore, this study is restricted to the causes, effects and possible solutions to the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.

Also the investigator relied on some ministries such as the ministry of education, the ministry of health and the ministry of finance and some industries like shell petroleum development company, retired and serving individuals in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state. The scope of this study covers Nigeria and  Ehtiope west L.G.A only.

Also the investigator is concerned with finding of solutions to the problems  of unemployment in this area.


As is usual with most research work of this nature problem encountered include time constraint, financial and transportation problems that is coupled with inadequate literature (i.e. text books).

Also another problem that confronted the researcher is the fact that no text books has been specifically written on unemployment in the area of study for an easy references.


a        Under – Employment: This is the type of unemployment whereby the able and willing persons who are physically fit, mentally balanced and academically qualified were not able to get a job in a given society.

b        Over – Employment: This is a situation whereby people are being employed in the field in which they are not specified.

c        Vicious Cycle: This is a situation in which the less developed countries  faces a great obstacles in combining the factor of development which are labour capital, resources and entrepreneurship. Low income leads to low savings retard growth of productivity, low productivity leads to low income. Other elements in poverty are also self – reinforcing. Poverty is accompanied by low level of skills and literacy; these as a result prevent the adaptation of new and improved technologies.

Vicious cycle of poverty has to do with the continuous process of low income, low savings, low investment, capital deficiency which thereafter result to low productivity and this retard growth in the Nigerian economy.

d        Mechanization: This involves the increase of factors of production that will help to encourage the employment of factors of production, more people will be employed, thereby reducing the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria, most especially in Ehtiope west L.G.A of delta state.

e        Unemployment:  According to Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary, unemployment means the fact of a number of people without or not having a job.

f        Labour Force: the oxford advance learner dictionary defined labour force as all the people who work in a company or country

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