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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Prior to 1977, there was no stock exchange in Nigeria apart from the Lagos stock exchange which was not centralized. Also, before the Lagos stock exchange cam into being (existence), Nigeria was not having any such market before independence in 1960. Rather, like many developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s, the financial system comprised foreign owned commercial banks which provided mainly short-term loans, commercial and trade credit.
As stated above, the Nigeria stock exchange did not just come into existence, but with gradual process (development) of the Nigerian financial system which has been one of the greatest achievements of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) since its establishment on July 2nd, 1959.
This system consists primarily of the money market (for short-term loans) and the capital market (for long-term loans) and (medium-term loans). The Nigerian stock exchange (previously known as the Lagos stock exchange) is the pivot or the fulcrum around which the entire capital market operates or rotates. It is the market for the sale and purchase of securities (that is stocks and shares). A market in which individuals and institutions (firms) who have surplus funds to their immediate requirement cam employ them profitably.
As this study is geared towards the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) market. The problems militating against it will be highlightened and solution being sourced for, to curtain these problems. Mean by which this market can prosper will be looked into as well and recommendations being made to look at the various problems militating against the market.
As mentioned earlier that the study is geared towards the problems and prospects of Nigeria stock exchange, the emphasis of the study will be laid on Nigeria Capital Market (NCM). As advocated earlier on the establishment of the Nigeria stock exchange, it can then be said that the Nigeria Capital Market (NCM) has been in existence before the establishment of the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE). This is so because, prior to 1977, there was no market of such rather, there was Lagos stock exchange that controls the money and capital market.
Although, the Lagos stock exchange was in operation, it was not centralized as the stock exchange in any nation would be. Because of this, a financial system review panel was setup in 1977 and with the recommendations of this panel, the federal military government decided to change the name of the stock exchange from Lagos stock exchange to its present name; the Nigeria Stock Exchange and to decentralized its location and operations with branches now in Port-Harcourt, Asaba, Kaduna, Ibadan etc. Its head office is still situated in Lagos.
It is worthy to note that since the establishment of the Lagos stock exchange in 1961 and the subsequent changing of its name to Nigeria stock exchange in 1977, it has provided a major local investment out-let for Nigerian investors.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The problems of this study were to analyze the nooks and cranny of the Nigeria stock exchange. That is the areas in which Nigeria stock exchange is erring in the location of securities and to explain whether firms get needed attention in the quotation of their shares (either small or big firms).
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Nigeria at independence in 1960 had no capital market as in other countries. This is because, the financial system in Nigeria as at then comprise of foreign owned commercial banks which provided mainly short-term loans, commercial and trade credit. For this reason, there were many hindrances for the economy which in one way or the other hinders the development of the country in general and the Nigeria stock exchange market in particular.
This study therefore, attempt to find out whether decentralizing the stock exchange has brought about any meaningful impact in the economic development of the country. Also, whether efficient allocation and transfer of securities take place in the Nigerian stock exchange (that is the Nigerian capital market). The circumstances surrounding the establishment of the Second-tier Securities Market (SSM) will also be highlighted in the study. The study will also be geared towards how improvement can be made to achieve efficiency in the Nigeria stock exchange (Nigeria capital market). The study will give an insight to the contributions and achievement of the Nigeria stock exchange since its inception.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
(i) What growth, Nigeria stock exchange has contributed to industrial development depend on capital market?
(ii) What is the relationship between Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) and industries?
(iii) Do Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) make assistant of long-term loans to industrial development?
(iv) Why Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) control the quotation of share and stock of companies, government and their agencies?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will geared toward the effectiveness and efficiency of capital market, stock exchange will stand as assistance for a better position to benefit from this study as it tends to reveal over-fast growing financing of firms. Therefore for this study will give enlightment to the achievement of Nigeria stock exchange since its conception
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is not being put in place for the consumption purpose of the students alone, but to the generality of the entire citizen of the country. That is, it is not only the students that will benefit from this study but as many that has to do with the financial system of the country.
Therefore, it can rightly be stated that the servers (private individuals), the industries (industrialists) as well as the government will benefit from this study. The capital market, stock exchange market will equally stand a better position to benefit from this study as it tends to reveal areas where the efficient allocation of securities is not measuring up with the ever fast growing financial requirement of firms.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is focused on public limited companies (Plcs) and limited liabilities company (Ltd).
The study is geared toward the areas of the fact, control the quotation of share and stock of public limited companies (Plcs) and limited liabilities companies (Ltd)
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Capital market: This is a financial market were medium and long-term loans are source for.
Money market: Financial institutions were short-term loans are obtained.
Stock exchange: An organised market where large and small investors alike buy and sell through stockbrokers, the stock and share of companies and government agencies.
Securities: These are stocks and shares traded in the capital market.
Shares: These represent ownership interest in a business.
Stocks: These are shares of more than one unit; that is, shares in bundle.
Plc: This means public limited companies
Ltd: This means limited liabilities companies
Second-tier securities market: Market for small scale and medium sized industries.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): This is the highest organisation that regulates the nations stock exchange.
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