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This study seeks to examine Industrial relations in Enugu state PHCN hence it examines the relations between the management and the informal groups within Enugu state PHCN; ascertains how the neglects of the psychological and social needs of the employees has affected Industrial relation in Enugu state PHCN; and finds out the role of industrial democracy in cordial Industrial relations. This is based on the observations that have proven from pre-independence in 1960 to date that Nigeria has witnessed chains of industrial actions as a result of trade disputes, which has adversely affected the socio-economic development of the country in general as there has been continuous decline in employees commitment to work, change of profession and complete nonchalant attitude to work occasioned by flagrant abuse of office occasioned by non-adherence to the tenets of human relations theory, leading to the dilemma of weak relations between labour and management that has resulted to the labour force not satisfied with their management behavior, wages and welfare items. In achieving the set objectives, the secondary source of data generation was utilized hence the work is a descriptive qualitative research depending on the human relations theory and content analysis approach for analysis. Base d on these three hypotheses: there is a relations between the management and the informal groups within the Enugu state PHCN; Neglect of the Psychological and social aspects of employees do affects the productivity levels in the Enugu state PHCN; and Lack of industrial democracy can mar Industrial relation within the work environment, it was found that there is a relations between management and the informal groups within a formal organization; Neglect of the Basic Needs of Employees Affect Organizational Productivity adversely; and lack of industrial democracy mars Industrial relations. Hard copy materials procured at the PHCN office added more colour to the entire work. Thus, the work was concluded with recommendations amongst which both labour and management should respect the agreement they entered into.
1.1 Background of the Problem
Industrial relations, according to Hailey (2000) are the interacting relationss between labour (employees) and management (employers). Management and labour’ are the English term used in English Common (EC) law to refer to organizations representing employees and employers. The equivalent term used in other language versions is ‘social partners’ (Willmot et al, 2003). It connotes the relations existing between employers and employees and their dealings with each other (Gerard, 2007).
In most industries, wages and conditions are determined by free collective bargaining between employers and trade unions. Some European and American countries have worker participation through profit-sharing and industrial democracy. Another solution is co-ownership, in which a company is entirely owned by its employees. The aim of good industrial relations is to achieve a motivated and capable workforce that sees its work as creative and fulfilling. A breakdown in industrial relations can lead to an industrial dispute where one party takes industrial action. Such situations necessitated the enactment of the 1947 Federal law which was designed to protect employers, employees, and the public. It governs union activities and provides an arbitration mechanism for strikes that cause national emergencies.
Demand for experts in Industrial relations continues to grow as new legislation and court rulings continuously update standards for employment conditions, leading to the clamour for more scientific study of human relations, but the volatility of human behaviour stands a threat to scientific study that heralds exact prediction.
Therefore, this study seeking to identify the three decisive aspects of the environment which, according to Fashoyin (2005:4), influence and constrain the actors in public organizations are:
1. The technological characteristics of the work place and work community which influence the form of management and employee organizations, and other union-management relations matters.
2. The market or budgetary constraints which impinge on the actors and influence the sale of goods and services depending on the nature of competition, but which in any event will influence the industrial relations system.
3. The locus and distribution of power among the actors in an industrial relations system, which is a reflection of the distribution of power in the larger society.
1.2 Statement of The Problem
The problem of Industrial relations needs to be re-examined bearing in mind, the huge responsibilities and tasks assumed by the labour in contemporary times, and proffer solutions where applicable. In view of this, there is need to know the types of incentives that motivate staff, and the different level of needs and aspirations of each staff.
Observations have proved from pre-independence in 1960 to date that Nigeria has witnessed chains of industrial actions as a result of trade disputes. This has affected the socio-economic development of the country in general as there has been continuous decline in employees commitment to work, change of profession and complete non-challant attitude to work.
Flagrant abuse of office occasioned by non-adherence to the tenets of human relations theory are the chief culprit of industrial conflicts in public organizations (Sadana, 2006:190) which the PHCN is a substantive part of. Such barefaced abuses of office resulted to unacceptable neglect of the psychological and social needs of the employees.
This study therefore, seeks answers to the following research questions:
1. How has management’s non-recognition of informal groups within
PHCN hampers employees productivity?
2. How does the neglect of employees ‘psychological and social needs at
PHCN affect the efficiency of PHCN?
3. How does lack of industrial democracy affect the PHCN productivity and efficiency?
1.3 Objective Of The Study
This study has general and specific objectives. While the study generally seeks to examine Industrial relations in Enugu state PHCN; and to achieve that, the following specific objectives suffice:
(i) To examine the relations between the management and the informal groups within Enugu state PHCN
(ii) To ascertain how the neglects of the psychological and social needs of the employees has affected Industrial relation in Enugu state PHCN; and
(iii) To find out the role of industrial democracy in cordial Industrial relations
1.4 Significance of The Study
This study has both theoretical and empirical significance. On the theoretical significance, the study intends to unravel the importance of applying the principles of human relations theory in the public organization like the PHCN. Its application will helped in no small measure in curtailing industrial strife by enthroning industrial democracy and staff participation in the decision making processes of the organization.
This study would be useful to both the staff and the management of PHCN, especially in their decision making processes, as employees would be given a sense of belong and allowed to air their views on what is affecting them and how to go about it.
This study will be very useful to the entire student and staff especially those that are conducting research on this field of study. It would be handy to all those working in any public organizations. It will also provide a framework for effective Industrial relations in organizations as a basis for improved productivity. Consequently, it will be of immense benefit to Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC which is the focus of this work.
1.5 Scope And Limitations Of The Study
The study centers on the Industrial relations on employees’ productivity. It was carried out at the Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC, Enugu Office. Therefore, Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC Enugu is the scope of this study.
This study was subjected to all limitations inherent in the sole use of secondary source of data. Although there are many tests on industrial relations, the one specifically for Industrial are not too many. The researcher therefore, had problems in obtaining literature which bears direct on this topic. Time constraint also contributed in small way in limiting the scope of the study. To wit, the dearth of relevant textbooks and the exorbitant cost of available ones consequent upon the prevailing economic situation in the country also serve to limit this research work.
The above limitations notwithstanding, the work was satisfactorily completed through some handful of relevant hard copy materials gotten from PHCN Enugu
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