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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
The banking sector of any economy is one of the most important sectors. The sector represents
the most active, most influential and responsive to changes in the economy especially as it has to
respond to the dynamics as imposed by globalisation. It also plays a significant role in the
economic development of all countries. The efficiency of banks is therefore of paramount
importance in the development process of a country (Ikehide, 2000).
Efficiency is a major success determining factor in today‟s business environment because of its
highly dynamic and competitive nature. Efficiency in banking is the ability of a bank to use
small amount of inputs to produce maximum outputs (Mehdian, Perry & Rezvanian, 2007).
Efficiency in banks can be classified into various forms namely; technical, pure technical and
scale efficiencies (Afsharian, kryvko & Reichling, 2011). Technical efficiency has to do with
obtaining the maximum level of loans, financial assets and net commission income from a given
set of equity, liabilities and deposits. Pure technical efficiency deals with a gain, an optimal
utilization of inputs to generate output, In other words, it is the ratio of technical efficiency to
scale efficiency. Scale efficiency deals with choosing the optimum size of bank to generate
certain production level (Bikker, 1999). Managers must develop strategies in order to be viable
and succeed in this highly unpredictable environment. Innovation is regarded as an important
factor that influences individual business success. It has improved the impact of banks on the
populace, and also expanded the horizon of banking business in developed nations. The fact that
the business of banking is similar everywhere presupposes homogeneity in banking services,
thus globalisation is easily amenable to the banking sector (Umaru, Hamidu & Musa, 2013).
Globalisation is seen as the removal of artificial barriers restricting trade and investment and
ensuring free movement of goods and services and investment around the world, so as to create a
global economy (Usman, 2004). It has led to increased interconnectedness and interdependency
among national economies. Shrinkage in distance and location between countries facilitated by
rapid advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) enable free movement of
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