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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Liquidity management in financial context means ways with which assets can easily be convertible cash without loss and hence the bank’s ability to pay its depositors on demand (Anyanwu 1993.87).
Liquidity management also means the degree of convertibility to cash, and company must all times maintain a reasonable level of cash and near-cash assets to enable it pay its maturity and unforeseen obligations.
Also, liquidity management involves controlling the level of money supply in the economy in order to maintain monetary stability. It is judged by the case with which asset can be exchange for money. In other words liquidity is the ability to convert an asset to cash with minimum delay and minimum loss and also the ability of deposit out of cash on readily of deposit out of cash on readility marketable asset without, a bank exist to make profit and at the same time remain liquid.
Thus, liquidity and profitability are two consideration governing a banks investment and since they conflict. It is not easy to reconcile them. If a bank management is interested in profit this might lead them into investing in assets which are highly remunerative but which may not be easily converted to cash it may not earn much profit because safe investments are not remunerative. The secret of should banking consist in the maintenance of adequate reserves while at the same time make profit since to objective of the bank is to maximize his profit, wishing certain strict limitations since deposit banks deals with other peoples money (deposits) inform of demand and time deposited and these represent the obligation of the bank to pay whenever they are requested.
The bank should always allocate their fund in such a way that their portfolios should always contain an adequate level of liquid. Assets. This liquid asset are the most important balance shelf items which have the capacity to maintain the confidence of depositors which is the most valuable intangible asset to the deposit banking rustiness and the liquid assets include the following. Treasury certificate treasury bills call money, commercial paper or bill and bankers unit fund. Bank that maintains adequate reserves are likely to create year on loss of confidence.
Among the depositor over the safety of their deposits which might lead to deposit with drawl make provision of customers demand for loan and as well make sufficient profit for their share holder.
The ability of banks to meet their financial obligation is usually measured to examining their balance sheet and relating some or all of its current assets to some or all of its current liabilities. In the special cases as a deposit bank, ratio of loan to deposits is the most commonly used measure of bank liquidity for their own safety it governed among other three factors are:
1. Day to day fluctuation
2. The nature of secondary reserves and the character of reserve organization in the banking system.
Liquidity management aims at obscuring optimum interest income, determining the total amount of cash and marketable securities that bank would hold are any point in time undoubtedly banks have as their objective the desire to survive to make profit and to grow as well as improve their profitability in charging lower rules on loans including customers to borrow more and here by shifting asset out of securities in loan. In order to achieve these objectives a bank has to manage its Liquidity well to have an adequate cash at hand to meet its obligations at all times and as well make profit. The banks should equally know and believe that securities are more Liquid than loan because in withdrawal from deposits account it can sell some of its securities to raise fund.
From the forgoing, it becomes easily discernible that it is worthwhile to examine the subject of Liquidity management on deposits banks performance in Nigeria and assess and evaluate such and for the over all impact of Liquidity management on deposit bank performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Proper management, no doubt; entails the achievement of the highest level of cooperate goals. Some of those goals include profit maximization, community responsibility or corporate image all expressed in the overall corporate goal of maximizing the share holders wealth. In the banking industry however the main focus has been has been on how to maximize profit while maintaining a high level of Liquidity in the system.
Obviously, the perceived role of liquidity as a hedge against high risk exposure that may arise from insolvency may have been one of the strongest reasons one for why in Nigeria. The central bank has continued to pay particular attention to the issue of bank capital base. The climax of this trend is the monetary authorities pronouncement of twenty five billion naira. (25bn) minimum capital base for all base for all commercial banks in Nigeria.
Infacts, the thinking is that a stowing capitals base will help to case the problem of liquidity on the banking industry. Since banks in pursuit of the profit maximization goals are exposed to high risk of insolvency where as idle cash runs counter to the profitability goals.
What than is the appropriate mix of profitability and liquidity for the banks? The resolution of this trade off between bank profitability and liquidity motives informed the decision to carry out this study. Consequently, the study evaluates the impact of liquidity management on deposit bank performance in Nigeria.
1.3 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study on the evaluation of the impact of liquidity management on deposit banks performance in Nigeria would go a long way to help us outline the course and failure of deposit banks in Nigeria, especially it would help banks to reconcile the objectives of bank liquidity against its profitability, in the conduct of deposit banking operation.
The specific objective of the study includes the following.
a. To examine the liquidity ration of deposit banks which would help to maintain a cordial relationship between liquidity and profitability.
b. To evaluate and ascertain how banks cash reserves ratio help to solve the conflict between liquidity and profitability.
c. To use loan to deposit ration to determine and reconcile the conflict associated with liquidity and profitability.
Bank could be perfect liquid only if it held its assets in cash but then it would earn no profit or again, if the bank grants risky loan. It might increases its profits but it would also increase its potential for going bankruptcy.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In our study to examine the positive and significant effects of liquidity management (against its profitability) on the deposit banks performance in Nigeria we would look into the following various significance thus.
a. The management staff of the bank would improve on their banking practice. An improvement on the banking operation would help the customer to have full confidence on banks
b. A good banking operation encourage customer to deposit or invest on the bank which bring more progress and confidence to the organization.
c. It would also be immense benefit of management and other people in the banking industries to improve on their services.
d. The regular payment such as life assurance premium may also help to improve the banks if the customer authorized the bank to pay the specified amount to the person (or institution) named until the order is revolved in writing.
e. Liquid asset in deposit bank play a very crucial role because banks operate largely with the fund borrowed from depositors in forms of demand and time deposit.
f. Banks are always expected to allocate their fund in such a manner that their portfolio should always contain an adequate level of liquid assets.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
From the research question, a research hypothesis was formulated as;
1. Null Hypothesis
Ho: liquidity ratio has no positive and significant effect on bank profitability.
2. Alternative Hypothesis
Ho: liquidity ration has positive and significant effect on bank profitability
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Consequently, the scope of the study examined the impact of liquidity management on the deposit banks in Nigeria which has to do with its performance in Nigeria deposit bank. The extent at which banks would be able to manage its liquid asset grant risk loans and increase its profit without going banlcruptcy (insolvency) Admittedly, with the constraints of time finance and other factors become feasible to restrict this research work to united Bank for African (UBA), Onitsha. This work will cover between 1998-2007 of the banks (UBA) Asaba liquidity position as extracted from its annual reports and accounts.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
in carrying out this study, problems love been encountered, some of these problems are the problem of getting secondary data, from the local environment, problem of bank giving out their annual report and some necessary information and also problem of inadequate library materials.
Another limitation was the unavailability of central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for easy reach. Which would help the researcher to select appropriate variable from the financial statistics for accurate work.
The local environment is ill-equipped with textbook journals and articles on the related topic or subject of study since there is no rich public library and book store that sell usefull material and if at all is found available the cost of purchase is very high.
Also, the limitation of the study if successfully completed would highlight the extent at which deposit banks in Nigeria have tried to ensure a high level of liquidity management since the production of consolidation.
Finally, the limitation of the study is on liquidity management of the research work couple with the streesness and limited time would serve as a limiting factor, also the assumption that executive to be interviewed may not be easily assessable and in giving sensitive information.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Liquidity: This refers to the ability of the firm to meet its current obligations when they become due.
Profitability: This means the rate of increase in a business profit over a particular period after paying all expenses.
Liquidity management: This is the degree of convertibility to cash of assets without loss and hence ability to pay its depositors on demand by bank.
Deposit money banks: These are institutions that provide various financial services such as lending acceptance of deposit, leasing e.t.c.
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