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The study explores the potential of biogas generation as an alternative source of energy for the University of Uyo. The research examines the use of Wastes on campus to exploit biogas production. The concept was waste – to –energy, which addresses tripartite sustainability problems such as reduction of environmental pollution, recycling waste for energy generation (biogas) and transmutation into bio- fertilizer through an anaerobic digestion process. The study was carried out in two different experimental procedures by co-digestion of cow dungs and paper waste and co- digestion of cow dungs, waste water and quail dropping. The results from the first experiment demonstrated that 6000ml of raw biogas was obtained from 7.82kg of combined waste (cow dungs and paper waste) and 8500ml of raw biogas was obtained from 8kg of waste (cow dungs, quail droppings and waste water). A scrubbing technique involving two chemical tests were conducted to obtain pure methane from raw biogas by removing impurities such as carbon(iv)oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Chemical scrubbing involving the use of ordinary water and sodium hydroxide solution and scrubbing involving the use of ferric chloride solution with sodium hydroxide solution were conducted. Test for combustibility of the purified gas from both experiment indicated positive results as obtained gas supported burning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - x
Abstract - - - - - - - - - xi
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - -
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study - - - - -
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - - -
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - - - - -
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of teams used - - - - - - - -
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 SUSTAINABILITY WITH REGARDS TO WASTE – TO –ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
2.2 ENERGY POTENTIAL OF WASTE/RESIDUE AND SOME SELECTED BIOMASS 2.2.1 ANIMAL WASTE
2.2.2 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)
2.3 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
2.4 THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
2.4.1 TYPES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION (AD) SYSTEM
2.4.2 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
2.4.3 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL WASTE
2.4.4 PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL WASTE
2.4.5 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND ENERGY
2.5 ENERGY EQUIVALENT
2.6 ENERGY AND BUILDING
3.1 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.3 DIGESTER DESCRIPTION
3.4 COLLECTION POINT
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION
4.2 FLAMMABILITYTEST BEFORE SCRUBBING
4.4 SCRUBBING PROCESS
REMOVAL OF CO2 AND H2S FROM BIOGAS BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND FERRIC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS
4.5 FLAMMABILITY TEST AFTER SCRUBBING:
SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENT, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDING
1.1 Background to the Study
In contemporary times, increasing concern for environmental health, eco-friendly waste management and sustainable energy production constitute the focus of many trade bodies, regulatory agencies, states and countries of the world. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are two key components of sustainable energy that provide significant environmental benefits. This environmental gain is usually seen in terms of ‘sustainable development’; which is a term that is now commonplace in a number of waste management, energy generation and rural development plans (Duerr et al.,2007).
Energy, which is a driver of economic growth, is obtained from various primary sources that are not limited to coal, petroleum, nuclear but also incorporates renewable sources from wind, solar and biomass. Of all these, the most widely used source is the non-renewable fossil fuel which account for more than 80% of global primary energy consumption (Awwad et al., 2007, cited in Oyedepo, 2012), with its attendant environmental pollution.
To date, there is global energy crisis as a consequence of declining quantity of fossil fuel coupled with the unprecedented rising crude oil prices. The crisis demands greater attention to alternative energy sources and upgrading of existing technologies. Hence it is critical now not only to focus on sustained economic use of the existing limited resources but to identify new technologies and renewable resources that have the potential to carter for the increasing energy demand in addition to possessing other positive attributes such as being sustainable, globally available, cheap and easy to exploit. Such technologies should Have the capacity to positively contribute towards actualization of the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals, MDG (B-Africa. 2008, UN. 2008).
Nigeria is not left out from such immense dependence on fossil fuel. A country endowed with primary energy resource with a record of the world’s tenth largest reserves of crude oil estimated to be about 36 billion barrels (about 4.896 billion tonnes) of oil equivalentin 2006 (Dayo, 2008), is yet to attain sustainable development with resultant effect on the environment.
As Nigeria is a populated country in Africa, it has significant resources of organic waste. Rapid urbanization, industrialization and agricultural activities have created environmental concern such as environmental pollution from municipal, industrial and agro-allied waste. Waste, which is an output of any operational system has continue to grow with more attention to an effective waste disposal management system. No doubt, there has been infinitesimal prospect into waste to energy technology(WTE) as a waste management strategy (Akhator et al, 2016, Tsunato et al.,2015; Agbo et al., 2011; Amber et al.,2012; Suberu et al.,2012). This is majorly the focus of this research. The study underscores this prospect in one of the higher institutions of learning in the country, from a paradigm shift on clean and healthy waste disposal method towards a sustainable approach. This approach embodies the concept of the four R’s, such as reduce, re-use, recycle and renewable energy which has generally been accepted as a useful principle for waste handling (Kothari, et al. 2010).
Waste-to-energy technology has been a viable waste management strategy in establishing sustainable waste disposal, delivery renewable energy and providing better end products such as biogas generation and farm manure in comparison to other disposal methods (landfills or incineration). Hence biogas, a waste-to-energy strategy, do not only provide renewable energy in the form of heat, electricity, fuel and methane gas for cooking from low/ negative value organic waste (Kothari, et al. 2010), but also minimizes environment pollution by anaerobic digestion process. To this end, this research examines the generation of energy from an organic waste known as Biogas. The interest in such renewable energy is driven by the rapidly shrinking reserve of fossil fuel due to increasing demand for primary energy, fuel price spikes, global warming- from flaring and greenhouse gas emission; and most importantly the availability of organic waste.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Biogas technology has not been widely adopted as an energy or economic strategy in many organizations and institutions in Nigeria. Institution like the University of Uyo is no exception. The demand for alternative source of energy using locally, cheap and readily available resources such as waste to abridge her primary energy needs has not been adopted. No doubt, there has been great concern on environmental pollution and fluctuating power supply in the university over time. The Annex campus, being one of the campuses of the institution has significant amount of waste. Some of these wastes include the municipal solid waste such as large amount of papers, polythenes and plastics. Wastewater from the hostels and the school cafeteria, sewage waste, animal waste such as cow dungs within the campus. These wastes most especially cow dungs are the most offensive waste on campus because these cattle are left to graze from their ranch to every nook and cranny of the campus in search for green pastures. While there is need to foster a clean environment for a conducive academic learning around the campus, more proactive measures can be put in place to ensure environmental sustainability by utilizing these waste as a source of energy for facilities in the University. Power supply from the national grid has continue to be a deficient scheme which has only be augmented on campus by constantly running generators. Heavy dependence on diesel for electricity over time has huge cost implication following the persistent hike in fuel prices and even fuel scarcity in the country. While there is need to manage resource on fuel, to adopt an innovative prospect into the four R's of waste management and energy generation with regards to sustainability; a compelling environment for academic proficiency and capacity building must also be brought to bear. Hence, waste and energy have been identified the environmental concern in the campus. It is in this context; this research is focused on. To offer prospect into which Cow dungs being a potential source of anaerobic microorganisms responsible for biogas production and solid waste can be co-digested for biogas generation in the University of Uyo.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The central aim of this study is to develop a biogas system that will generate clean energy as an alternative source of energy for the University of Uyo. The following objectives are set to achieve this aim: To
· Design and construct a prototype anaerobic reactor for biogas production.
· Assess the use of cow dungs and paper waste on campus as substrate for biogas production.
· Assess the use of cow dungs, quail droppings and waste water on campus as substrate for biogas production.
· Determine the volume of biogas produced
1.4 Research Questions
The study seeks to provide answers to
· What are the potentials for biogas use as alternative source of energy in annex campus of the University?
· Can the cow dung and paper waste on campus sustain biogas production?
· How is the biogas to be produced and used?
1.5 Significance of The Study
This research is carried out to explore the possibility of biogas generation as an alternative source of energy in the University of Uyo. This will help build body of knowledge in biogas energy generation and further create awareness of the need for sustainable energy sources in the University and beyond.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research is carried out within one of the campuses of the University of Uyo.
1.7 Definition of Terms used
Renewable Energy: This refers to energy obtained from energy sources whose utilization does not result in the depletion of the earth’s resources. Renewable energy also includes energy sources and technologies that have minimal environmental impacts, such as less intrusive hydro’s and certain biomass combustion. These sources of energy normally will include solar energy, wind, biomass, small and medium hydro, geothermal, tide and wave energy (NREEP, 2015).
Biomass: Organic, non-fossil material of biological origin (NREEP, 2015).
Waste: Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use
Digester: is a huge vessel where chemical or biological reactions are carried out. It also called a bioreactor
Substrate: the waste or substance on or which a microorganism acts upon i.e. lives, grows and decomposes.
Volatile solid: Volatile solids normally represents the amount of organic solids in water. The greater the concentration of organic or volatile solids, the stronger the wastewater or solution.
Buffering agent: A weak acid or base used to maintain the acidity (pH) of a solution near a chosen value after the addition of another acid or base. That is, the function of a buffering agent is to prevent a rapid change in pH when acids or bases are added to the solution.(Wikipedia.org)
Inoculum: A small amount of material or substance containing bacteria or other microorganisms from a pure culture which is used to start a new culture or to infect an experimental body. Culture here refers to a biological set up.
hydraulic retention time (HRT): also known as t (tau) or the retention time (HT); is a measure of the average length of time that a soluble compound remains in a constructed bioreactor or digester. HRT is usually expressed in hours (but most times in days for biogas production).Cited in www.lenntech.com/wwtp/hrt.htm
Lignocellulose: Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass). It is the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol. It is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an aromatic polymer (lignin). (Wikipedia)
Calorific Value: the energy contained in a fuel or substance, determined by measuring the heat produced by the complete combustion of a specified quantity of it. This is now usually expressed in joules per kilogram. (Collinsdictionary.com)
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