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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Pneumonia is a more important concern in old people older than 65 years than younger individuals. Actually, the incidence of pneumonia among elderly is 4 times higher than younger individuals, with elevated risks of hospital admissions and higher mortality rates.Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the lungs and includes bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia. In practice, the diagnosis and management of pneumonia in the community is less dependent on the anatomical site of the infection than on its severity and effect on the individual patient.
Pneumonia in older patients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared to younger adults. Undertaking a severity assessment can give prognostic information in this group and help guide appropriate treatment. Prevention by means of vaccination is an important aspect that should also be given attention. In general, there are three types of pneumonia in the elderly: community-acquired, nursing home-acquired, and nosocomial pneumonia.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to patients who live in their home; these patients present more commonly than nursing home-acquired patients because most elderly live in their own homes. However, nursing home patients are a population deserving of special review as they have different characteristics and tend to be sicker than community patients. Also, this population has a higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia compared to the community-acquired population.
Pneumonia is responsible for a great majority of physician admissions, treatment costs, work-school day losses and deaths. Despite positive improvements in diagnosis and treatment, the common use of antibiotics and efficient vaccination, pneumonia still leads to high rate of mortality and morbidity. The studies conducted have shown that the incidence of pneumonia increases with age.
Recent developments in nomenclature include the term healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), which was incorporated in the 2005 American Thoracic Society guidelines. HCAP refers to any patient who develops pneumonia in the hospital, resides in a nursing home or residential care facility, receives home wound care, undergoes chronic dialysis, or is exposed to a family member with a multidrug resistant pathogen.
This review will focus on awareness risk factor and therapeutic intervention, as well as management of pneumonia in the elderly. For the purposes of this review, “elderly” is defined as patients 65 years or older. It is a special period that requires evaluation from a different viewpoint due to the numerous concurrent chronic diseases and the course of acute diseases with atypical symptoms and findings and also due to physiological, psychological and socio-economic changes. Pneumonia is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. Turk Thorac J (2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Just like the saying goes “a nation without information is a deformed nation” this really true because there are certain things most people are ignorant about their health which might lead. Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs that can destroy humanity among the elderly, hence this study to enlighten all most especially the elderly. The challenges that lead to high mortality rate of affected patient could be as a result of lack of information or awareness concerning all that concerns pneumonia which might be a health challenge to the elderly. It could also be that there are no means of communication in some interior parts of the community were information can easily be disseminated. It could also be that there are no qualified health workers to handle the situations and more so, it could be that there is no possible therapeutic intervention in terms of treatment and qualified hands. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the effect of pneumonia on children but not even a single research has been carried out on awareness of risk factors and therapeutic management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine awareness factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1 to determine the level of awareness of the risk factors of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
2 to determine the factors affecting the intervention and management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
3 to determine the relationship between the awareness of risk factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
4 to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of awareness of the risk factors of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano?
2. What are the factors affecting the intervention and management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano?
3. What is the relationship between the awareness of risk factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems above?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no significant relationship between the awareness of risk factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
H1: there is significant relationship between the awareness of risk factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly in Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the awareness of risk factor and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly will be of immense benefit to the entire Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano in the sense that it will educate them on the risk factors of pneumonia, the symptoms and as well as enabling them to locate a health care service center for proper treatment. The study will also enable the government to build a standardized hospital with qualified doctors, nurses and other health worker that can treat the patient effectively. The study will enable effective awareness by the government on the risk factors and therapeutic intervention of pneumonia in other to reduce the high mortality rate amongst the elderly. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the awareness of risk factors and therapeutic intervention in the management of pneumonia among elderly is limited to Umuofor Umuchoke community Ehime Mbano.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Awareness:Knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.
Risk: Is the possibility of losing something of value.
Therapeutic:Relating to the healing of disease.
Intervention:Is the act of inserting one thing between others, like a person trying to help.
Management:The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.
Pneumonia: Is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing
Elderly: Advanced age; old.
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