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From the first time that social networking came into Nigeria, it brought with it major transformations that have affected the way information and communication are produced and shared. Furthermore, social media and the many possibilities it presents has radically changed the way Nigerian people consume music. This new mode of consumption of music appears to deprive popular musicians some of the sources of their income and impoverishes them. This paper aims to investigate the new mode of access of popular music by Nigerians and to find out how/whether this has any effect on the income of Nigerian popular musicians. The research employs the descriptive and survey research methods. It argues that, because social media has caused a change in the way Nigerians consume music; Nigerian musicians must adopt newer means of maximizing income if they are to get adequate financial benefits out of their creative input. The significance of this research lies in its provision of data-based information on how Nigerians access music and how this has changed the pattern of the generation of income through music. It also suggests ways by which social media can be harnessed for the maximum benefit of both the consumer and the music industry in Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the Study
Social media which results from technological advancements has affected the way youths the world over live. The Nigerian youths like their counterparts from other parts of the world actively participate in social media activities and this has in no small way impacted on their behaviour.
The way Nigerian youths access and consume music today is very different from how the youths of the century before consume music. Before the coming of social media, music was mostly consumed in hardware (hard copy) form, as the medium of the distribution of musical content was either through Vinyl, Cassettes or most recently, CDs. This is very different from what obtains today. The new pattern of music consumption today can be attributable to the availability of technologies that allows indiscriminate downloading and sharing of right-protected musical contents, no thanks to the digitalization of data.
The advent of the digitalization of data brought with it major shifts in the way people live and carry on business. Digitalization transformed many processes including the process of music production, music marketing, music promotion and music consumption in a way that is unparalleled in history (Lusensky, 2010, Frick, Tsekouras, & Li, nd.). One of the greatest impacts of digital technology is globalization. We now live in a world where everybody is linked and always (Lusensky, 2010).
With the development of the printing press in Germany in 1440 (Andrews, 2012) came other giant strides in the development of information and communication equipment like the telegram, radio, television, telephone, and facsimile. These together form the bulk of mass media and represent the major mode of publishing and marketing of products for its dispensation (Chen, De & Hu, 2015).
The coming of the computer revolutionized the way businesses are being carried out. The computer makes communication easy, bridging the gaps between people and making the world a global village (Essay UK, 2013). The coming of the computer was followed by the era of social networking.
Fallouts of the evolution of the computer is the rise of the ‘new economy’ (Droke, 2000; Investopedia, nd.) where well-established firms which hitherto controlled the traditional industries made way or had to make way for the more technology-driven cybernetic economy of Personal Computers and automated trade (Droke, 2000). With this, virtually everything now happens online through the mediation of web tools and platforms (especially social or ‘new’ media). Social media on its own has made it possible for individual not only to connect and interact socially but also to be able to publish themselves – a preserve of the well-establish companies in the old economy.
Social media developed in Nigeria with the introduction of mass computer literacy and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) compliance by businesses and government agencies at the turn of the 21st century (Asika, 2016). Because media facilities were mostly dependent on dial-up Internet Service (ISPs, it was difficult for many to realize that that was actually where it all began and rapidly spread through hi-tech media and devices.
In 2001, the Nigerian government decided to deregulate the Telecomm sector and that gave birth to GSM operation in Nigeria (Okafor, 2016). From this period onwards, Nigerians were greeted with many telecommunication services which include Mobile TVs, Electronic Payment System, cheaper call tariffs, Mobile Banking internet services. With cheaper internet services and improved mobile technologies, social media platforms ranging from Google, Yahoo (especially Yahoo Messenger), 2go, WhatsApp, Instagram, Blackberry Messenger, Snapchat, Tweeter, YouTube, Facebook to most recently, Imo, Badoo and Skype became common place.
The introduction of MP3 encoder made it very easy for music to be shared between consumers and their network of friends. The challenge that arises from this among other things, include the unwholesome consumption of popular music without having to pay for it, unauthorized publication and illegal sharing of copyrighted material. These constitute infringements on the right of the music artiste and his/her label company.
Aim of the study:
As far as music consumer behaviour is concerned, studies have shown that social media has brought about a shift from consumption of producer generated-content to the consumption of user generated-content and the process involved in social media generated content is now participatory between people that share analogous interests (Kullenmark, 2012).
The main aim of this study is to ascertain how easy access of music through the social media has affected the music consumption pattern in Nigeria. This study aims specifically to:
i. Find out what kind of music Nigerian youths access on social media
ii. Ascertain the attitude of Nigerian music consumers toward illegal download of music through social media
iii. Observe and outline what the music consumption pattern of Nigerian youths portend to the future of the Nigerian music scene
To be answered in this research are the following questions:
i. What kind of music does the Nigerian youth access on social media?
ii. What is the attitude of the Nigerian music consumer toward illegal download of music through social media?
iii. What does this present music consumption pattern of Nigerian youths portend to the future of the Nigerian music scene?
Scope of the study
This study was carried out among individuals between the ages of 15 and 35 in Abuja and its environ. The scope of the study covers, Abuja City (in the Federal Capital Territory), Nyanya, Karu, Mararraban Gurku, and New Karu (in Nasarawa State)
Also, the type of music observed in this study includes: Hip-Hop, Reggae, Makossa/Soukous, and R&B, Gospel, Naija Hip-Hop, Blues and Jazz etc.
Significance of the study
The significance of this research lies in its provision of data-based information on how Nigerians access music and how this has changed the pattern of the generation of income through music. It is also significant because it suggests ways by which social media can be harnessed for the maximum benefit of both the consumer and the music industry in Nigeria
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