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                                                                    CHAPTER ONE


The term Home economics means home training or skill training. It takes one on welfare of himself and other families. It has been in existent hence mothers train their girls on how to cook and do other work at home artworks, also mothers train their daughter on how to keep houses clean, hair plaiting, decorating home with local paints, body painting, dressing during moon light and festivals also how to make up in other to marry comfortably, while fathers train their son on how to farm and make crafts like baskets and carving art works. As time goes on, it was introduced as domestic studying schools, later to domestic science. On arrival of the white men called missionaries to Nigeria. Though there were no formal schools, they introduced it to be called Home Home economics, no more domestic science. Since their arrival they introduced it as formal education. It becomes more than cooking and craft making. And extended into sewing, home management, clothing and textile, and within a short time Nigeria introduced it to primary schools, junior and senior secondary level and today into higher institutions. Today, both sex study home Home economics because it offer job opportunity. Obiakor (2006) stated that through this philosophy, “home has become the most influential and sweetest of all human institution and organization in shipping the destiny of man. Anyakoha (2010) stated that Home Home economics is a method of finding out the need of individual families and finding way of meeting the needs of individuals and families, improving the goods and services which families use, prepare people for family living and prepare people for employment. To enhance an effective teaching and learning of  Home economics, teachers should apply the desirable methodology in teaching Home economics especially the use of instructional materials, just as Ezeugwu (2009) noted that no subject area which does not make use of instructional materials. These materials enhance learning concepts and events in less time than mere verbalization by involving all the senses. Obanya (1989) view instructional materials as  a didactic materials – things which is supposed to make teaching and learning possible.

The role of instructional materials and its management towards the effective implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Basic (primary) schools in Nigeria is indispensable. Thus, instructional materials provide concrete and realistic experiences that make learners develop faster understanding of the concepts to be learned. Instructional materials are those items which the teacher uses to make his teaching and illustrations real and enjoyable. They refer to the totality of materials, devices and real life objects, improvised or look - alike materials employed in teaching and learning to facilitate the instructional process. Instructional materials are scattered everywhere even in our homes. It falls under three major categories. They are:

 - Audio- Visual Material: This categories of instructional materials make use of both sight and hearing senses. The audio-visual materials produce sound and motion. Examples are: televisions, videos, overhead projectors, computers slides and film strip projectors with sound accompaniment and such like.

 - Audio materials: These are the second category of the instructional materials. The audio materials stimulate the senses of hearing only in teaching and learning. Examples include, radios, cassette/tape recorders and language laboratory.

 - Visual materials: This is the third and largest category of the instructional materials that largely appeal to senses of touch and sight. These include; models, charts, maps, pictures, real objects, flannel boards, posters, bulletin-boards, chalk boards and such like. The effectiveness of any of these instructional materials depend largely on a number of factors such as relevance to the topic, appropriateness of introduction and the teachers‟ resourcefulness in using them to accomplish his/her instructional objectives among learners. Instructional materials bridge the gap between the teacher and the learner. It reduces the chalk-talk syndrome that involves only the learner‟s sense of hearing which makes him loose interest after sometime. However, utilization of instructional material during instructional process is necessary because primary school pupils learn more by direct involvement with concrete materials than through abstraction. This calls for adequate provision, availability as well as management of instructional materials at this level of educational system. Instructional materials ensure effectiveness in teaching and learning since the learner not only hears but also see and does. The effective implementation of UBE programme required proper management of instructional materials by the school administrator and teachers in primary schools so as to enhance teaching and learning process. It entails developing positive attitude towards the use of these materials in the classroom for illustration and demonstration of concepts.

Instructional materials are the key for good implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme. Instructional materials help to present ideas, facts and information. It can arouse the enthusiasm of learners, teach concepts and principles, impress pictures and images vividly in the minds and memory of learners and also help in transfer of learning. The negligence of these instructional materials during learning process may cause more harm than good to the future of learners. It is important to note that any established school curriculum calls for ways or means of implementing it in order to reach the various levels because no discussion of curriculum is complete without suggestion about methods and means of implementation. Moreover, educational system especially at primary level faces some problems which range from high rate of illiteracy, school dropout, poor teaching and learning environments, lack of educational facilities poor maintenance and insecurity of science equipment (if any), to poor planning, lack of finance, lack of regular supervision and monitoring, low curriculum implementation, lack of instructional materials to mention but a few. The attempts at solving these problems lead to the use of innovative teaching-learning methods. These innovative learning methods involve the use of organized combination and utilization of people, materials, facilities, equipment and procedures to achieve the desired instructional objectives. The question is; are these new innovations applicable in today’s educational system?

Infact, the condition of primary schools system (government owned) in Nigeria is not what to take home about. These primary schools seem to be abandoned. Teaching and learning process is still going on without instructional materials to the detriment of the learner. The level of 28 availability and the rate of utilization, maintenance of these instructional materials in primary schools is greatly very insignificant. This was affirmed by Akubue (1993) who noticed that most of these instructional materials mentioned are not available in schools and even where they are available they are scarcely used. Classroom observation of teachers while they teach revealed that Social Studies teachers do not use instructional materials. Thus, primary schools in Enugu metropolis are not an exception. At the primary school levels, greater percentage of instructional process is based on rote memorization. Many classroom teachers still prefer the traditional chalk-talk or telling mode of instruction to concrete-oriented practical method of using instructional materials during teaching and learning process. In Enugu metropolis, the adverse effect of non-availability and application of these instructional materials is widely observed in the 68 government primary schools. The researcher took time to visit some of these primary schools in Enugu metropolis and discovered that the level of availability of these instructional materials is very scanty. Since this is the condition of the primary schools, how can the curriculum of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) be well implemented for the attainment of the already stated goals. How are these instructional materials acquired? Are they effectively utilized during teaching-learning processes? Are they properly stored and maintained where available? To what extent do teachers make improvisation of these materials when they are not available for effective teaching learning to take place in their schools? These questions invoke the interest of the researcher to embark on this research study.

A close look at schools around its today goes to prove a popular opinion or view that the majority of teachers do not use instructional materials effectively for teaching and learning of Home Home economics. Tahir (2002) admitted that there is a general lack of instructional materials. Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant organs. They must be relevance for the realization of the intensive of curriculum. Thus there is a short fall in the availability of instructional materials and teachers are unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in other to effectively derive home the lesson thought. Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not compensated. Oforah (2009) state that the outcome of committee of STAN were pupils textbooks, teachers guides etc while Tauari (1998) states that the commission for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things. Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching and learning. Furthermore, Tyler (1950) in his opinion explained that Home economics Department should have a well organized instructional material corner, units or room where some of the following could be found. Verbal symbols (oral or written), recordings, visual symbols for stimulating interest, regalia the real thing or authentic materials Dale (1959), Television, it made educational experiences which are beyond the reach of the classroom available to the students.

The purpose of this study are to:
1 Determine the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home  economics in the study area.
2 Identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home  economics in the study area.
3 Enlighten  people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home  economics in the study area.

This study will be of significance to the following:
1. It will serve as a reference point on the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Home  economics.
2. The study will bring awareness to the government curriculum planners and other stakeholders in the area on the necessity in provision of adequate instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Home  economics.
3. It will  make  educational  experience which are beyond the reach of classroom available to student of Home  economics.
4. It will provide a guide to the appropriate use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home economics.
5. The study will also create awareness on the benefit of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home economics.

1. To what extent is the use of instructional materials effective for teaching and learning of Home economics?
2. What are the problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Home  economics?
3. How much awareness is being created for the people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Home economics?


 The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the conduct of this study;

 Ho1 there is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and students on the instructional materials that are available in teaching Home economics in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho2 availability of instructional materials have no significant influence on the performance of students Home economics in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho3 there is no significant difference in the opinion of the respondent on the teachers use of instructional materials in teaching Home economics in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area;

 Ho4 there is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on the teachers‟ improvisation of instructional material in teaching of Home economics in senior secondary schools in Agwu local government area.

Few selected schools in Agwu Local Government area were studied. This will be made up of combination of government owned schools. The names of the government owned schools includes: C.S.S. Mmaku, Rosary High School Awgu and Boys Secondary School Awgu. While the private owned schools includes: Presentation secondary school Awgu and Alpha secondary school Awgu. This scope of study are selected/chosen so as to help solve financial limitation/problems.

Conceptual And Operational Definition
Instructional materials – conceptual – Teaching aids which can also be referred to as instructional aids, teaching materials which appeal to all sense and felling and aid learning.
Operational – Course of study, syllabus, curriculum, bulletins, guides, handbooks, research reports, audio visual aids and other materials which serve as a teacher’s educational function.
Home economics – Conceptual – An interdisciplinary field of study which help families and individuals to understand and adopt to the social Home economics, culture and technological changes.

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