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Accountability in both public and private section has being an issue that is
worth discussing due to its paramount and colossal impact to the overall
performance of an organization.
It (Accountability) has to do with reporting back action, task carried out by an
individual to the authority who apportioned such function.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Accountability is the process or act of reporting back to a higher authority,
body or individual the actions taken by a steward. It enables the person or
persons reported to determine if the steward has acted or performed the assigned
duties properly and satisfactory. It plays a major role in the success or failure of
any business, particularly when the business is not managed by its owner.
Initially most business set-ups were managed by their owners. The owners‟
manager was the sole financial contribution to the enterprise. But with the
development in the scale and scope of business, a huge capital beyond that
affordable by the sole individual or a family was needed. Consequently
contributors (hereafter called shareholders) were required to raise the funds for
the business. The emergence of these shareholders led to the divorce of the
owner managers from the management of the business as all of them cannot be
directors at the same time. This the management of business was entrusted to
the hands of people who have no financial claims to the business and the
shareholders were sceptical about this particularly as the law does not permit
them individually to go through the books of the company in their desire to keep
abreast of the performance of the directors.
This skepticism aroused the need for surveillance over the activities of the
non-owner managing directors. This bid to fulfil the later led to the engagement
of third-party (an Auditor) to perform an audit of the company‟s accounts.
Audit has since them received a lot of definitions and/or then received a lot
of definitions and/or interpretations both from accounting bodies and auditors
and their non-the-like. Justifiable is to say that audit has suffered a lot of
misinterpretations. Most of the misgiving interpretations see it as being armed at
fraud and error detection. But audit essentially involves much more than that.
One of the most involved and of course the most acceptable definitions so far is
that issued by the consultative council of accountability bodies (CCAB) which
sees audit as “the independent examination and expression of opinion on the
financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor in pursuance of
statutory obligation (Howard 1982:1).
Deductively, an audit is the objective scrutiny of someone‟s work or
presentation by a third party (an auditor) who is different from the users and the
preparing of the presentation. The general essence of audit is to ascertain
compliance of the firm‟s records and operational policies with usefulness of
acceptability of and the dependability on the firm‟s financial statements.
Accountability as explained above has suffered some misconceptions,
surprisingly in the hands of those who should have understood it better. Most of
the lay men conceptual understanding of accountability relates it to
„communicating about monetary matters (Odon, 1999:7) but accountability goes
beyond that. According to the Webster encyclopaedia dictionary of English
language (1995:110), accountability is defined as “the state of being
accountable, answerable, liable or responsible” the same dictionary goes further
to define accountable as “liable to pay or make good in case of loss; responsible
to a trust, liable to be called to account, put in another way an much more
related to the context in the articles Aba times of fourth September 1999
captioned “accountability in the third republic” it says
Accountability connotes answerability and stewardship, by
answerability is meant answering for one‟s actions and
Stewardship according to the article means service; it means
that every leader should be responsible to the people who
reposed trust in him.
For accountability to be accorded its rightful place in an organization the writer
believes that there is a high need for proper internal control measure and in
addition, efforts should be made to ensure that company accounts are subjected
to external and independent audits after each financial period.
The bible also records in chapter 25 verse 14-30 of saint Matthew gospel,
the story of a rich man who went on a far journey entrusting the affairs to his
servants and who when he returned, required the servants to answer
individually, for their stewardship to the business while he was away. It in the
same manner that it is required of the chief executives and directors of a
company who are quite different from the real owners of the business to answer
for their stewardship of the funds and property entrusted to them by the
shareholders. It is desire for accountability that gave rise to what we know today
as audit- a mechanism through which the shareholders are made abreast of the
true and fair picture of the activities of the directors and chief executive of the
THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SHEFFIELD RISK
MANAGEMENT LIMITED, OWERRI
Sheffield risk management limited is located within the industrial layout
area of Owerri, it is established as a private limited liability company, it is an
The company is an insurance brokerage firm that serves as an intermediary
between the insurer and the insured; they also serve as underwriter of insurance
policies. The insurance policies in which Sheffield risks management limited
act as intermediary between the insurer (insurance company) and the insured
(client) or consultant to each or both include Life insurance, Car insurance,
Burglary insurance, Motor vehicle insurance etc.
According to the memorandum of understanding signed by the stake
holders of Sheffield Risk Management, the company has its ownership structure
as shown below out of the start-up capital of twenty two million naira
Shareholders % Of shareholding Nominal value (₦)
Mr. David Okolie 50 11,000,000
Okonkwo 22 4,840,000
Mrs. Mary Nwosu 18 3,960,000
Barr O. Oluchukwu 6 1,320,000
Mr Okey Elendu 4 880,000
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Going by the memorandum and article of association of the company, it has
provision for six member board which comprises of the chairman, general
manager, company‟s secretary, marketing manager, company‟s accountant,
This composition has been maintained throughout the company‟s existence
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The increasing wave of fraud and embezzlement of public funds by high
officers and chief executives in the private and public companies brought to the
lime light some misconceptions of what the job of an auditor is and what audit
is all about. To the uninformed, the auditor is a wizened individual who wears
the traditional green eyeshade and sleeve garters.
They will expect to find him perched on top a high stool counting money,
meticulously adding long columns of figures and gaining his sole pleasure in
life from the apprehension of luckless person whose books failed to balance or
whose cash account proved to be short (harword 2002:135).
According to Pratt (1998:1), were you to ask the average
man in the street about the auditor‟s job, he will probably
tell you that he prevent fraud, press our layman further, he
may paint you a picture of a rather gray individual who
buries himself in ledger, emerging only from time to time to
produce sets or figure which are not important anyway
Such are the image that the auditor has attracted but they are incorrect in the
sense that “the auditor‟s primary responsibility is neither to prevent fraud nor to
produce figures” (woolf 1982:12)
The problems are:
I. Mismanagement of enterprises by directors and top management who in
most cases have no real financial stake in the business.
II. Because of the fact that the directors and top managers have no financial
claims to the business or its enterprise, they tend to exhibit the highest
level of truancy to work and are generally indifferent to the progress of
the company. Most them regrettably choose their moments for putting the
company into liquidation of little or no cost to them, by diverting the
funds and assets entrusted into their care for their personal uses.
III. And without the misappropriation being detected not the culprit being
brought to book the auditor expresses an opinion of “a true and fair view”
of the perpetrated fraud. The problem is that this attitude has dented
considerably the professional image of audit. To most employees of the
auditor, the effect is “there is no need for auditors as it has failed to detect
And to the few informed ones the question constantly asked is “how
independent is the independent auditor?”
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Having had the problem stated, the objectives of this study which are stated in
null form are:
I. To ascertain the role of independent audit towards accountability in an
II. To determine whether independent audit can enhance managerial ability;
III. To determine if independent audit can control fraud and embezzlement.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In order to complete this study successfully the following hypotheses have
been formulated in null form:
I. Independent audit does not enhance accountability in an organization.
II. Fraud and embezzlement will not decrease if independent auditors do
their work properly
III. Mismanagement is not due to lack of accountability.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The misconception of the function of audit has, no doubt, eroded in most
minds the confidence and reliance on creditors‟ report and has dented the
credibility with which the audit profession was known.
The researcher has, therefore taken to this study for the need to show
management and directors that reliance on auditor‟s report will help to enhance
their performance. The studies will contribute to knowledge by bringing the
opinion of many experts in one text and this make it easier for readers to have a
broader knowledge of the subject without having to go through several texts.
Finally the thesis will become a reference material for other student who will
carry out further studies in the field.
1.6 THE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The study will mainly focus on the company selected as a case study i.e.
Sheffield Risk Management Limited, Owerri. The researcher would go beyond
desk search into field to sample the opinion of workers, officers as well as chief
executive. These would be accomplished through the construction and issuance
of questionnaire to the potential respondents and also through oral interviews.
The researcher intends to convince the misinformed minds about the
relevance of independent auditing as a tool for enhancing accountability. To do
this only well informed individuals will be consulted during the primary data
The scope of the study will be limited to the statutory role of the auditor. The
auditors power and rights, lead liability, ethics and types opinion. The study
will also cover intend control as a very important variable in accountability.
Further aspects and functions of internal audit will also be covered.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THR STUDY
In the course of this research work, problems of various natures were
encountered, which in no small measure constituted some “Road block” to the
progress of the study. Among the militating factors are the following:
1. Non-return of completed questionnaire by some respondents: some of the
respondents did not return their response of the questionnaire irrespective
of the researcher‟s series of reminder letters. Their reasons ranged from
forgetfulness to lack of chance to attend to the questionnaire.
2. Piecemeal collection of information: information was collected in
piecemeal from management due to bureaucracy among others.
3. Reluctance in releasing information on even oral interviews. The
researcher was looked upon as a spy in disguise who has come from their
competitors to x-ray what they called their “top secrets” and “blue prints”
As a result; comprehensive data were not easily collected
notwithstanding the researcher‟s letter of introduction.
4. Time: This was not a good friend of the researcher. The time allocated to
this study was very insignificant compared to the volume of the work
involved. This time constraint was further companied by the existence of
other class room work.
5. Funds: Money was another constraint to the research work. Most often,
the researcher ran out of funds and had to delay the work for money to
6. Exeat: Considering the school system, time spent on the search for
permission to leave school as regards to the research study is yet another
factor that ate deep into the very fabric of time allocated for this study,
hence it is considered as a limiting factor to the progress of the study.
1.8 ORGANZATION OF STUDY
In order to realize the aim and objective of this study the write-up was
divided into five chapters not only for an intensive study but also for the
convenience and better understanding of the information by users.
Chapter one of the research work covered an introduction to the study: the
statement of problem objectives of the research; the limitation encountered by
the researcher during the study: Organization of the study and the operational
definition of terms used in the study.
Chapter two covered an interview of current and related literature.
Chapter three dealt with the methods and procedures used by the researcher
in conducting the study.
The analysis of the data collected by the researcher is treated in chapter four.
The fifth chapter dealt on the researcher‟s findings/observations,
recommendations to the information user and a conclusion of the entire work
based on the researcher findings, observations and tests.
1.9 DEFINATION OF TERMS
Some terms used in this study which may not be clearly understood by some
readers are hereby defined.
This is the dependant examination of a financial statement by an auditor
expressing an opinion about the true and fair view of the financial statement and
state of affairs of the enterprise.
It is the independent examination of, and expression of opinion on, the
financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor in pursuance of that
appoint and in compliance with any relevant statutory obligation.
The individual or partnership firm appointed to carry out an audit of the
financial statements of an entity.
Any report, written by an auditor on a matter on which an opinion has
been sought within the terms of an auditor‟s appointment.
This is another term for audit report.
This is information obtained by an auditor inn arriving at the conclusion
which forms the basis of the auditor‟s opinion on the financial statement being
This is the audit function carried out within an organization of evaluating and
reporting on accounting and other controls on the operations of the organization.
An audit of an accounting entity carried out by an auditor who is not employed
by that entity or by its manager and is as far as possible independent of the
person(s) who manage(s) the entity.
This is the state or condition being accountable.
This is the required provision for the description, analysis and evaluation of
INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM:
This is the whole system of controls financially and otherwise established by
the management in order to carry on the business of the enterprises in an orderly
and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management policy, and safeguard
the completeness and accuracy of the records, as regards to an organization.
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