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This project details the results of a research work carried out to develop fish feed compounded from locally available materials in the institute of oceanography fish farm and analyzed its nutritional values, in the biochemistry department all in the University of Calabar. On the basis of the feed production, it is recommended that the feeding regime of the animal (fish) for intended culture is known, a dry diet formulation of two distinct feed lines was produced (fingerlings and adult), and that the diet was produced in the fish farm. Results shows that experimental feeds required crude protein content for sample A is 44.63±0.01 and that of sample B 35.1±0.1 details of the formulations are fully described.
The primary objective of commercial fish production is to produce a marketable product at the maximum profit. This involves a continuing effort to reduce feed cost, which is a major portion of the cost of production, while trying to maintain fish health, feed efficiency, and rapid growth. In an expanding market relatively little emphasis may be placed on product quality, but as the market matures, competition between producers for market share and competition from other meat sources will put more emphasis on product quality (Shearer, 1999). So the foremost criterion is that diets (fish feed) should supply all the essential nutrients and energy in adequate proportions in tune with the animal’s needs to satisfy the requirements, maintenance of vital physiological functions for bodily or gonad growth, reproduction, health and well being of the species concerned. Fish feed accounts for at least 40 - 65% of management expenses during a culture period depending on the level of aquaculture intensification (Jauncey and Ross 1982). Fish feed production is generally the result of derivation from various ingredients.
There have been several previous reviews of the effects of diet on fish composition (Love, 1970; Love, 1988; Spinneli, 1979; Buckley and Groves, 1979; Mohr, 1986; Haard, 1992; Shearer, 1994).
Besides, in aquaculture as in other animal production systems, another major issue is that of ensuring flesh and environmental quality, both of which are related to nutrition. Since the nutrient requirements for all the new species under aquaculture are not known, it is rather a common practice to extend data from more or less closely related species. In the formulation of diets, it is essential that, even when the diets are formulated theoretically to contain all the essential nutrients in adequate quantities, the availability of these nutrients from the raw materials used can vary significantly. The diet should be supplied in a form which is easily accepted by the cultivated animal and should have little adverse environmental impact.
1.1 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY:
To analyze for the chemical components of fish feeds compounded from locally available materials to ensure it meets up with the intended chemical requirements for optimum fish growth and long term profitability over a shorter period of time and increases total farm output since feed accrues for over 50% cost of farm production.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE:
i. Acceleration of fish growth and quick returns of profit to farmers.
ii. Feed stimulates rapid development of plankton’s population due to fertilization of pond water by degraded leached nutrients from the uneaten feed fed to fish. Planktons in turn are natural food for baby fishes.
iii. It encourages high stocking density in minimum space.
iv. It ensures good health of culture fish.
v. High egg numbers or fecundity and hatchability in brood stock fishes.
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This research work is limited to fish feed formulation and the analysis of its chemical constituents to ascertain its nutritional values.
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