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Background of the Study
Teaching aid is crucial to teaching and learning processes. A dedicated classroom teacher feels satisfied when he realizes the objectives he has set out to achieve for every lesson. In order to achieve this, a trained teacher employs a number of methods, design and actions, one of which includes the use of Teaching aid. Teaching aids are referred to as the resources which both the teachers and students use for the purpose of effective teaching and learning. Okwo (1996) defined Teaching aids as those materials that teachers can use in teaching to facilitate the learning of a particular subject or lesson. The list of Teaching aids are inexhaustible and their limit is the teacher's level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination. Rominszowski (1996) listed Teaching aid to include newspaper, magazines, pictures, textbooks, chalkboard, laboratory equipment, posters, bulletins, journal, radio, television, audiocassettes, tapes, film scripts and slides. Others are overhead and opaque projector, real objects and computer. Okebukola (2003) described Teaching aids as information multipliers because they are capable of providing learners with opportunities to learn beyond teachers capabilities when utilized for instruction.
Statement of the Problem
Effective transfer of practical skills by the teachers to the students in Home Economics require good teaching methods as well as Teaching aids. This implies that technological changes have always necessitated the need for continuous provision of Teaching aid. Despite all the emphasis on the acquisition of practical skills and basic knowledge by the students for various activities in Home Economics it still requires the good manipulation of skill oriented instructional facilities. Yet, the Teaching aids are unavailable, insufficient and inadequate (Ogwo, 1996). This may have been responsible for the Basic 7-9 school Home Economics teachers' adoption of theoretical approach in teaching Home Economics in most urban and rural secondary schools in Anambra State. This aspect of teaching/learning seem not to appeal to the students sensory organs of learning as a result of
For effective teaching and learning to take place, there is need for adequate teaching with Teaching aids (NERDC, 2008). Teachers of Basic 7-9 Home Economics are expected to improvise Teaching aids for teaching/learning of Home Economics. Arkhurst & Anyakoha (2004) noted that the use of tools of environment and other improvised practical facilities, if undertaken correctly, improves students’ learning. This implies that Teaching aids could be sourced from the local environment by improvisation, and utilized adequatelty for the teaching/learning process. Whether or not Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers in
Anambra State improvise and utilize Teaching aids is yet to be empirically ascertained. Hence this study was to investigate the improvisation and utilization of instructional materials for teaching Home Economics in Basic 7-9 schools in Anambra State.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to investigate the improvisation and utilization of Teaching aids for teaching
Home Economics by basic 7-9 teachers in urban/rural schools in
Anambra State. Specifically, the study would:
1. identify the various Teaching aids available for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics.
2. determine the utilization of the available Teaching aids by the Basic 7-9 teachers of Home Economics.
3. identify the various Teaching aids improvised for teaching of basic 7-9 Home Economics students.
4. ascertain the various ways Teaching aids are being improvised for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics students.
5. determine the problems encountered by basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers in improvising Teaching aids for teaching.
6. identify strategies for enhancing improvisation of Teaching aids by Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because the findings would be of benefit to the Home Economics teachers, the students, Anambra State Universal Basic Education Board (ASUBEB) and the society at large.
The results of this study would immensely motivate Home Economics teachers' curiosity towards improvisation and utilization of Teaching aids for teaching/learning. The findings of this study could enable teachers to utilize less expensive materials which the students can easily identify in their locality to make their teaching lively. When teachers improvise for teaching, teaching will be very fascinating, less boring and learning would be interesting .
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the students. This is because when teachers improvise and utilize Teaching aids in teaching Home Economics, the students' interest and understanding in learning the subject could be enhanced.
The findings of the study would provide statistical data for Anambra State Ministry of Education and Anambra State Universal Basic Education Board (ASUBEB) towards solving the problems encountered by Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers in
improvisation of Teaching aids. Such findings will as well serve as data base for Anambra State Ministry of Education and State Education Commission in helping to source locally available materials for improvisation.
Finally, the society would equally benefit from this study if the Home Economics teachers improvise and utilize Teaching aids, Home Economics teaching will be lively. If the findings of this study are as well published in journals and other news media they could contribute meaningfully to socio-cultural advancement of the society.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to available Teaching aid for teaching Home Economics in Upper Basic 7 – 9, their utilization and how Teaching aids were being improvised. Also the problems and strategies in the utilization and improvisation of Teaching aids by teachers of Basic 7-9 Home Economics in Anambra State were investigated.
The following questions were answered in the course of this study
1. What Teaching aids are available for teaching basic 7-9 Home Economics students?
2. To what extent do Home Economic teachers of basic 7-9 utilize the available Teaching aids?
3. What are the various Teaching aid being improvised by basic 7-9 teachers of Home Economics?
4. In what ways are the various Teaching aids being improvised for teaching Basic 7-9 Home Economics students?
5. What problems do basic 7-9 teachers encounter in improvising Teaching aids for teaching?
6. What strategies can be adopted to enhance basic 7-9 HomeEconomic teachers’ improvisation of Teaching aids?
The following null hypotheses were be tested at 0.05 level of significance
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on their extent of
utilization of available Teaching aids for teaching.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the various
Teaching aids improvised by them.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the ways through which they improvised the various Teaching aids.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the problems they encounter in improvising Teaching aids.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean response of urban and rural Basic 7-9 Home Economics teachers on the strategies for enhancing their improvisation of Teaching aids.
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