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This study was designed and determined the incidence of Human Immune Deficiency Virus in 44 reference army hospital Kaduna State local government area of Kaduna State. There was introduction statement of the problem backwund of the study. Five objective were et significant of the study limitation of the study and defination of term. Related literature was review from the introduction, concept of Human Immune Defiency Virus. Causes of Human Immune Defiency Virus, incubation period infestation, minor feature, manifestation, function of Immune System, pathophysiology. Diagnosis, detail management of HIV, chemotherapy and preventive measure the description was adopted a question are was the instrument for collection of data. A sample size of 100 respondent was use for the study the collection of data was presented and analyzed using table and percentage (%). Finding, conclusion, summary and recommendation was draw showing that illiterate and lack of sex education are major causes of Human Immune Defiency Virus. Parent, government, health workers have a role to play in term eradicating Human Immune Defiency Virus.
The human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is one of the frightening diseases and it is a pandemic which has eaten deeply into the human race.
It infects cells of the immune system, including macrophage helper cells and certain lymphocytes.
Human immune deficiency virus is single standard ribonucleic acid (RNA) envelop with cubic shaped.
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) which upon entry into the body’s natural defence mechanism (immune system). It renders the body susceptible to fatal attack by disease against which the body could have normal resisted. Although it has been a worldwide problem.
Since early 80 it was not considered to be a major public health problem.
In Nigeria 1986 when the first case was officially reported in Lagos state
World health organization (W.H.O) has declared the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a global emergency because the infection is out of control in many country parts of the world.
A clinical manual by world health organization (W.H.O) Geneva WHO 1994.
The prevalence rate in some state in Nigeria range from 1.6% to 10% 15 of the state having sero prevalence rate above the National mean 44%
The prevalence rate was higher in the urban with 4.6% than in rural area with 3.9%.
Among young person the highest prevalence rate 4.3% is in the group 20 to 24 years, by the end of 2006 it was established that there are 2.99 million in Nigeria living with human immune deficiency virus with 305, 000 new infection in adult and 74.520 in children largely acquire through mother to child transmission (MTCT).
However, sexual transmission account for nearly 80% of all human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One of the world greatly approved profession is the Nigeria Army, their service are widely known for their efficiency, but the prevalence of this deadly infectious disease “Human immune deficiency virus” virus is not worth their efforts.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that there is an increasing rate of human immune deficiency virus among women of child bearing age in 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital Kaduna State.
This prompt the research to carry out this research work so that the possible investigation and the extent to which the infection have gotten and to put forward suggestion on how it can be prevented and reduce the incidence of human immune deficiency virus.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To determine the factors predisposing the human immune deficiency virus
ii. To investigate the causes of the problem
iii. To find possible solution to how human immune deficiency virus can be prevented among women of child bearing age
iv. To determine the opinion of the management about the cause of the disease.
v. To encourage the government to organize program where the cause, prevention of human immune deficiency virus can be taught through mass media for the benefit of women of child bearing age.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Unprotected sexual intercourse leading to sexual transmitted infection (STI) in which of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)
ii. Multiple sexual partners can predispose one to human immune deficiency virus (HIV).
iii. The poor socio-economic status predispose one to human immune deficiency virus.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
i. It will be quite educative and enlightening to the women
ii. It will create and insight into the women, soldier management to known the cause of the problem.
iii. It will provide the women with relevant information about the prevention and treatment of the disease.
iv. It will encourage the women to build and maintain a good health status against the infection (human immune deficiency virus).
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited to these women that attend clinic living in 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital Kaduna State.
44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital is one of the renowned Hospital in Kaduna state south Local government area.
It is about 4 kilo-metres away from the main town of Kaduna State and has a population of 150 to 300 women and 200 men, this investigation will help us to compare the subsequent seen to ascertain which of them is responsible for the human immune deficiency virus example due to um protected sexual intercourse, ignorance of disease.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research project would have covered a larger area than 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital Kaduna, but due to some certain limitation faced during the research work such as financial problem and mobility to visit various villages and town, this restricted the writer to concentrate only in few places for collecting data.
As stated above, financial constrain is one of the factors that restricted the researcher not to cover. Wider area, in this way making the research to sample information from a particular source.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS
i. Immunity: Compose all these natural processes in host which prevents infection refection or super infection which assist in destroying the invading parasite or restrict their metabolism.
ii. Pandemic: This is the term used when a particular disease spreads World Wide, example, influenza pandemic of 1981 to 1919 which swept over the world.
iii. Incubation period: Is the period that lapses between the initial invasion of infectious agent and the onset of the first clinical symptom.
iv. Infection agents: Is an organism that is capable of producing infection or infectious disease, parasite which cause these diseases vary and include viruses, rickettsia, bacteria & fungi etc.
v. Natural immunity: Is an inherent or species characteristic which is independent of previous infection.
vi. Carrier: Is a person who hoboes and disseminates the causative organism of a disease and yet show no clinical evidence of infection, he suffers no ill effect himself but maybe a source of infection to others.
vii. Mode of transmission: This is the mechanism by which an infection agent is transmitted from one vector or source the susceptible host, directly or indirectly.
viii. Contagious: This is a disease that can be transmitted directly or nearly from one person to another by actual contact or contagious.
ix. HIV: Human immune deficiency virus.
x. AIDs: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
xi. Disease: An interruption of the normal body structure and physiology of any part of the body.
xii. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid carries the genetic information out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm where it directs the formation of protein.
xiii. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid is the basic substance for inheritance
xiv. WHO: World Health Organization that takes care of the affairs of health related problems in the world
xv. MTCT: Mother to child transmission of infectious disease to their children, for example, Human immune deficiency virus can be transmitted to un born child through the placental.
xvi. STI: Sexual transmitted infection. Infections that are transmitted through sexual intercourse or example syphilis, human immune deficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
xvii. Window Period: The window period is a term used to describe the period of time between human immune deficiency virus infection and the production of antibodies.
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