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Cervical cancer is an important women‟s reproductive health problem. It is a preventable disease of significant public health concern especially in developing countries. It is the third most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cancer and leading cause of death from cancer among women in developing countries.
A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in the Gynaecology clinic, Minna General Hospital, from January to March 30, 2013. To determine the prevalence of premalignant lesions in cervical smears, to assess the knowledge, and risk factors of cervical cancer and to determine the uptake of screening among women of child bearing age group among women attending Gynaecology clinic in General Hospital Minna. Data were analyzed with Epi-info V 3.5.3 Analysis at 95% confidence interval, 5% significance level. Univariate analysis applied include frequencies, means. proportions, while bivariate analysis include the calculation of prevalence odds ratios, analysis for association between cervical abnormalities and selected exposure factors, Fisher‟s exact test for statistical significance.
A total of 108 pap smear samples were collected and questionnaires administered to each of the participants, Of the participant 14 (13.9%) 95% CI (0.8-21.9) had pap smear with abnormal findings. The abnormal cytological results were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) seen in 12 (11.11%) with 2 (1.9%) human papilloma virus (HPV) effects. Out of which 17(16%) had inflammation, Majority 72 (66%) of respondents reported having heard about cervical cancer, out of which 77 (71%) of respondents had heard about cervical cancer screening, 74 (68%) knew Pap smear test as the only screening method while 67(62%) of women did not have knowledge on the risk factors for cervical cancer. Uptake was low only (5) 4.6% have had cervical cancer screening prior to the study.
This study showed prevalence of abnormal positivity of 14(13.9%) 95% CI (0.8-21.9) which is consistent with previous reports of the prevalence of abnormal cervical smear in women in Sub-Saharan Africa. The age pattern was notable, with the highest prevalence among women ≥ 49 years. Intense public health campaign be conducted on a recurring basis; providing cervical cancer education with emphasis on its aetiology, risk factors and methods of prevention.
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