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This research on effect of employees’ commitment on organizational productivity was carried out in Ambrose Alli University (AAU), Ekpoma, Edo state, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that determine employee’s commitment to their job, the study also aims at finding out the relationship between motivation and employee’s commitment and the impact it has on job performance and organizational productivity. In order to achieve the objectives, three hypotheses were formulated and were tested using the chi square. The sample population was drawn from a cross section of the university’s (AAU) staffs, comprising both junior and senior academic staffs. The questionnaire was used to elicit information, and these relevant data were collated and analyzed in later part of the work. The findings from the study show that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees commitment. The second hypothesis was tested using the chi square, and the result showed that there is a significant relationship between motivation of employees and their level of commitment to work. Finally, the last hypothesis which sought to find relationship between commitment and overall employee and organizational productivity was confirmed. However, suggestions were made as to improving employee’s commitment especially in tertiary institutions amongst which are: the need to improve on workers salary, disciplining the staffs as way of ensuring sanity and effective learning among the students and many others. These suggestions if strictly adhered to will not only enhance learning, but as well raise the commitment of staffs and consequently increasing productivity in the university.
In an era of limited resources, governments at all levels are pressured to produce maximum output with the least input. A great deal of attention has been given to a variety of productivity improvement strategies, including public-private partnership, and Balanced Score Card (BSC), in the hope that such strategies are a starting point for productivity improvement. It should be noted, however, that no productivity improvement strategy alone is perfect. As such, various strategies should be used at the same time. Since productivity improvement is a function of too many factors, ranging from top management support to feedback on budget based decisions, it is essential to be aware that all factors are equally important (Holzer & Callhan, 1998; Lee, 2000a).
Among others, the backdrop of productivity improvement is an employee’s desire to be maximally productive. As Guy (2002) points out, “it is the people who, in the long term, control the productivity of any organization” (p.307). Even if there might be a number of reinvention efforts and top management support, unless employees at all levels are willing to improve productivity, all efforts toward productivity enhancement will come to nothing.
Modern day Organization is concerned with the analysis and diagnosis of the factor that determine organizational effectiveness, and the planning and delivery of programmes to increase that effectiveness. Organizations want to obtain the commitment of their employees. Management would like its employees to identify with the values, norms and artefacts of the organization, hence the need for organizational culture. Management needs to explain and imbibe its culture in its employees; this will enable the employee to get familiar with the organizational system. During this process of explanation, the employee learns about the organizational culture and decides whether he can cope with it or not. This means that each organization is a learning environment. It is the proper understanding of the organizational culture that the performance of the employee in the organization. Performance is the extent to which an individual is carrying out assignment or task. It refers to the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an employee’s job (Cascio, 2006).
Commitment has a rational element: Most people consciously decide to make commitments, then they thoughtfully plan and carry out the actions required to fulfill them (Meyer, et al, 2004). Because commitments require an investment of time as well as mental and emotional energy, most people make them with the expectation of reciprocation. That is, people assume that in exchange for their commitment, they will get something of value in return—such as favors, affection, gifts, attention, goods, money and property. From this perspective, this paper sheds light on the importance of a multidimensional view of employee commitment. This paper starts with an assumption that the previous concept of organizational commitment may not tell the whole story about individual performance and productivity. Identifying multiple foci of employee commitment beyond the organization helps explain various motivational bases among employees toward productivity improvement efforts.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problem of this study bore from the fact that there is a wide discrepancy between employees’ efforts towards work and what he or she receives or get in return for that effort. In the world of work, as particularly in a university setting, employees and employers have traditionally made a tacit agreement: In exchange for workers’ commitment, university’s governing bodies would provide forms of value for employees, such as secure jobs and fair compensation. But rather unfortunate, the employees irrespective of their level or ranking in the university. As a result, workers in the organization have embarked on series of protest in order protect their work conditions and improve welfare package. Reciprocity affects the intensity of a commitment. When an entity or individual to whom someone has made a commitment fails to come through with the expected exchange, the commitment erodes. This study therefore, looked into the effect of employee’s commitment on organizational productivity, a case study of staffs of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:
1. What is the level of employee commitment in relation to job satisfaction in Ambrose Alli University?
2. Does motivation improve employees’ commitment to work?
3. Does the level of employee’s commitment determine organizational productivity?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of employee’s commitment on organizational productivity. The study also aims at:
i. Determining the effect of employee commitment in relation to job satisfaction.
ii. Ascertaining whether motivation improve employees’ commitment to work, and
iii. Ascertaining whether employee’s commitment determines organizational productivity.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
The following null hypotheses will be tested in this study:
1. There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ commitment
2. There is no significant relationship between motivation of employees and employees’ commitment to work
3. There is no significant relationship between employee’s commitment and increased performance/productivity
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from this study will help to highlight those areas where there are problems among staff and thus will be of great benefit to the authorities of higher institutions and the policy makers. The results of this study would hopefully be significant in the sense that it would enable both the Management of universities to better understand how the various motivational factors could be harnessed to inspire staff to increase and sustain productivity.
The findings from this study would help to further highlight the likely problems of frustrations and how motivation can be used to either reduce or eliminate these problems amongst staff of the organization (Ambrose Alli University).
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on effect of employee’s commitment on organizational productivity. The study will also covers the various techniques of employees commitment and theories of motivation as they impact on employees productivity in an a organization. The study covers between 2010 and 2011.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study is limited to the employees’ commitment, and its effect of organizational productivity. The study does not consider other variables and as such is limited to only those areas specified above. Also, the study only covers the academic environment which is further confined to the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. It does not cover all sectors of the Nigerian educational system; and as such the study does not look into how commitment strategies work or influence productivity across other sectors of the Nigerian economy.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
For an orderly presentation of this study, this research essay has been divided into four chapter. The first gives an introduction of the study, chapter two focuses on literature review, chapter three is the presentation and analysis of data generated for this study, and chapter four the summarizes the study and gives useful recommendations.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employees’ commitment can be defined as both a willingness to persist in a course of action and reluctance to change plans, often owing to a sense of obligation to stay the course.
Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.
Employees: Are the workers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the organization, the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma including academic and non academic staffs.
Productivity: It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process. That is the outcome performance of an organization or individual.
Motivation: These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.
Cascio, J.S. (2006) The public-private distinction in organization theory: A critique and research strategy. Academy of Management Review, 13, 182-201.
Guy, M.E. (2002). Managing people. In M. Holzer (Ed.), Public productivity handbook (pp.307-320). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Cohen, A. (2003). Multiple commitments in the workplace: An integrative approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2001). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89
Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 991-100.
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