GENDER DIFFERENCE IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS OF NIGERIAN SINGLE PARENTS

GENDER DIFFERENCE IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS OF NIGERIAN SINGLE PARENTS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study

Marriage is the socially acceptable union between a man and a woman. It means the coming together of two totally different individuals as husband and wife who agree to plan and set up their own family. Osarenren (2002) viewed marriage as usually a union between an adult male and an adult female. Marital conflicts come in different forms like spouse battering, spousal abuse, sexual abuse, marital irresponsibility, incest, rape, subtle struggle for control between the couple and other abusive behaviours. There is concern about the rising rate of unresolved marital conflicts, which often lead to marital instability, further leading to divorce, desertion, single-parenthood and legal separation. Thus, unresolved marital conflicts oftentimes lead to failed marriages. Marital conflicts are often caused by childlessness, forced marriage, incompatibility, communication gap, interference by in-laws, finances, infidelity, sex of children, lack of appreciation etc. Therefore, when marital conflicts occur regularly, it may have adverse effects on the psycho-social adjustment of adolescents who are the products of such marriages.

Single parenthood is a state where a single parent takes care of a single or many children without any help from any man or woman, mostly physically, from the other biological parent. Because of the increased changes from the traditional ways of doing things, over the years, single parents have increased in high rate by the day goes. Over the past three decades single-parent families have become more widespread than the so-called "nuclear family" consisting of a mother, father and children. Nowadays, from this research we observe and witness all types of single parent families: run by mothers, run by fathers, headed by a grandparent raising their grandchildren. Life in a single parent home while familiar can be reasonably nerve-racking for the adult and the children. The single parent may experience beleaguered by the task of caring for the children, maintaining a profession and keeping up with the bills and domestic responsibilities. The aspect of single parenting referred to in some cases as single parenthood has, become one of the upsetting issues of societies. It is found everywhere around the world, in advanced and developing countries. Others suggest that single-parent families have been present in all societies over time and should not be viewed as deviant or problematic, but rather as an alternative family form (Coontz, 1997).

The single parent is course in a number of ways, death of one parent, divorce, rape, teenage pregnancy, separation and desertion. Most single-parent emanate because of the death of a spouse. In the 1970s and 1980s, most single-parent was the result of divorce. Willicox (2003) in a study on “The Effect of Widowhood on Physical and Mental Health, Health Behavior and Health Outcome,” found that women who were recently widowed reported substantially higher rates of depressed mood, poorer social functioning and lower mental health and physical functioning than women who were widowed more than a year. Sarah et al. (2006) studied “Divorce Leads to Poor Psychological and Physical Health in Women” in Lowa on a sample of 416 rural mothers.  The results revealed that divorced women have a higher susceptibility to chronic illness, especially over a period of time compared with married women. A stressful life event has also shown to have affected the psychological health of these women after the divorce. Divorced mothers experienced a greater number of stressful events Women” in Lowa on a sample of  416 rural mothers. The results revealed that divorced women have a higher susceptibility to chronic illness, especially over a period of time compared with married women. A stressful life event has also shown to have affected the psychological health of these women after the divorce. Divorced mothers experienced a greater number of stressful events such as demotions, layoffs, accidents, critical illnesses and problems with their own parents than did married women. Divorced mothers are also trapped in a vicious cycle of financial problems and other stressful life events..

1.2      Statement of Problem

Research on single parenting in Bayelsa more limited. The problem of single parent face is financial assist, lack of hope, loneliness, sense of belonging, lack of good food. In many cases single mothers run and control households, as many mother, household heads are unmarried women with young children. In spite of the Limited research on single parenting, consensus seems to build around the main ways in which a woman may become a single mother. Most research has concentrated on the increasing causes of single parenting and the general impact of single parenting particularly on the mothers and children and there is a limited research on the effect of gender difference on the psychological adjustments of single parenting in Bayelsa. Therefore, there is the need to research if single parenting has effect in Bayelsa to fill research gap on single parenting.

1.3      Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study was to assessing the effect of gender difference on the psychological adjustments of single parenting in Bayelsa Alibiri community area

The specific objectives of the study are to:

1. To examine the causes and problem of single parenting in Bayelsa Alibiri community

2. To assess the effect of gender difference on the psychological adjustments of single parenting in Bayelsa Alibiri community

3. To ascertain the child’s care arrangements in single parent homes

4. Recommend solutions to improve single parent homes in Bayelsa Alibiri community

1.4      Significance of the study

The important aspect of the study is know the  problems and extended it can be reduce. Some predicament leads to the other and single parenting may be affecting the health, educational ,attitude and character and status of children in Alibiri community. Therefore, if this problem of single parenthood is dealt with to a reduce level, many other issuses and social problems will be mitigated. If children grow up knowing how to value life, take good care, respect rules and regulations and be given enough protection and preventive health education, they will grow up with dignity and focus. The findings would also contribute to policy initiatives on issues relating to controlling single parenting. Finally, the study would form a basis for researchers who wish to undertake further studies on single parenting in Bayelsa in Alibiri community area.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research study was limited to the Alibiri community in Bayelsa and focuses on how single parenting affects

On child care status of children


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