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1.1 Background of the study
The community relies upon the police to “protect and serve”, and the police in return rely upon the community’s support and cooperation in order to be effective. When there is good police–community relations, police have a better understanding of the public’s concerns (especially those that are crime related),and citizens are more inclined to report crimes that occur to the police, provide tips/intelligence to law enforcement, willingly serve as witnesses, and are happy to participate in jury trials. By extension preventing crimes before they occur or minimize their impact, instead of simply react to calls for service. Good police–community relations prevent the possibility that the public thinks that police are simply a mechanism for intelligence collection. Police-community relations refer to the ongoing and changing relationship between the police and the communities they serve. This includes issues of cooperation, race relations, and fear of police, violence, and corruption. In other words, no matter how well equipped the police department may be, its efficiency and effectiveness will largely remain a potential if it fails to establish a good relationship with its host community (Ross, 1995).Peel (1829) undertook the reorganization of the London police with the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829, he and the two key commissioners that he appointed, Charles and Richard emphasized that the police should work in cooperation with the people to protect the rights, serve the needs, and earn the trust of the members of the community (Critchley, 1967; Reith, 1952). Writing at the turn of the century, Lee (1971) discussed Peel’s principles of law enforcement. According to Lee, police officers are “public servants in the fullest sense of the term” (Ross, 1995) The concept of police-community relations has gained a secure level of acceptance in the law enforcement establishment and in urban government. Acceptance, in a working sense, means that proposals to establish and maintain such programs have a fair chance of success (Cox, 1996).The concept of Police-Community Relationships (PCRs) is very important to understanding of the role of the police in society and the ways in which communities can render assistance to the police in discharging these roles as effectively as possible. For example, in order for the police to carry out their crime control, peace/order maintenance, traffic control and emergency management functions effectively, it must work with residents of their host communities and see themselves as partners in the same community. If the community residents have cause to suspect the police or consider them as an army of occupation they will withdraw their cooperation and unrest will reign in such a community. Therefore, “Police-community relationship must be two-way partnerships” because “in a democratic society, the legitimacy of the police depends on broad and active public acceptance and support” (Dempsey and Forst 2008: 288).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Police-community relations refer to the ongoing and changing relationship between the police and the communities they serve. This includes issues of cooperation, race relations, and fear of police, violence, and corruption. In other words, no matter how well equipped the police department may be, its efficiency and effectiveness will largely remain a potential if it fails to establish a good relationship with its host community (Ross, 1995). On this background the research wants to investigate the role of police community relation in combating crime
1.3 OBJETIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To ascertain the role of police in combating crime community
2. To ascertain the relationship between police and the community
3. To ascertain whether police can combat crime in the community
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no role play by police in combating crime community
H1: there is role play by police in combating crime community
H02: there is no relationship between police and the community
H2: there is relationship between police and the community
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will give a clear insight on the role of police community relation in combating crime. The study will be beneficial to the students, communities, Nigeria police force and the general public. It will serve as a reference to other researcher that want to embark on this topic
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role of police community relation in combating crime. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
POLICE COMMUNITY: Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on building ties and working closely with members of the communities.
RELATION: the way in which two or more people or things are connected; a thing's effect on or relevance to another
CRIME: An action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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