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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Politically, democracy, or democratic government, is "a method of government in which every one of the people of a state or polity are drawn in, in making decisions concerning its affairs, characteristically by voting to elect representatives to a upper house or similar assembly," as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.
On the other hand, Merriam-Webster Dictionary further defined democracy as government by the people more than ever the rule of the majority and a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them unswervingly or indirectly through a system of representation more often than not involving sporadically held free elections.
Although numerous definitions of democracy proliferate in speculation and practice, the one unanimously accepted is that highly developed by Abraham Lincoln, which says that democracy is the government of the people, by the people, and for the people. The standing rule of a just government is majority rule, one in which incomparable force is held by the general population under a free and reasonable constituent framework. In a genuine majority rule government, the general population have the naturally ensured right to pick who rules over them at any given point in time.
History has it that, Roman, Greek, and Persian - mostly focusing on their methods to ruling the citizens that consist of them and which history still unveiled that in 392 B.C., in Athens, Socrates was found guilty by jury for corrupting the minds of young people and similar dissent-related charges, and put to death by poisoning. Notably, Socrates is said to have been the first victim of democracy.
Consequently, Socrates belittled the administration of Athens a great deal, demanding that political representation is an exchange that requires aptitude and duty - something he unequivocally felt legislators set up at the time in Greece did not have, that they were just in positions of force by method for a kind of bequest.
Given to that, this is momentous because Athenians are ascribed with the creation of democracy, and the film theorizes that their democracy was anything but what is considered one to be in modern society. 400,000 individuals lived in Athens amid old Greece's prime, and more than 200,000 of those occupants were slaves who obviously had no voting or representation rights at all. Women were likewise not allowed to take part in political matters. The producers rush to call attention to how highborn this methodology to democracy sounds.
About the year 507 B.C., the Athenian leader Cleisthenes brought and introduced a system of political restructuring that he called demokratia, or “rule by the people and however, this system was comprised of three separate institutions: the ekklesia, a sovereign governing body that wrote laws and dictated foreign policy; the boule, a council of representatives from the ten Athenian tribes; and the dikasteria, the popular courts in which citizens argued cases before a group of lottery-selected jurors.
Even though this Athenian democracy would live to tell the tale for only two centuries, Cleisthenes’ invention was one of ancient Greece’s most enduring contributions to the contemporary world.
However, democracy is important as it protects the intrigues and requests of minority gatherings and these gatherings have entry to the political system. In democracy minorities are free from separation and their perspectives are as vital as majority views.
Moreover, democracy is in addition an important factor of controlling government power and keeps the general population who hold power mishandling it and utilizing it for their-own increase instead of for the general populations and this is done in a democratic state by having elections and holding those in power accountable for what they have done. Elections don't just consider an administration responsible additionally they let the general population take an interest and have their say in the political procedure. The general population in a democratic system will have the capacity to impact government decisions by joining political parties, joining pressure groups, taking part in protests and many other ways.
Characteristically, legislature serve as indispensable constituent for any democratic government and chief factor in its sustenance, its existence predates the initiation of modern democracy and it has been however noted that the emergence of the legislature dates back to the twelve century and a product of medieval European civilization transformed in the age of democracy to suit the needs of contemporary political systems (Loewenberg 2015: 736).
Conversely, the legislators are voted in some countries like Nigeria, at the same time as in some other countries they are chosen. Regardless of the distinctions in legislatures over the world, they have a typical auxiliary character that recognizes them from other arms of government in a democracy. The general characteristic of legislator is their relation between members is not that of power and subordination however that of correspondence of individuals since they get their power from being agents of the general population (Saliu 2010). The legislature might practice diverse capacities occasionally relying upon the political framework; the two cardinal standards of legislatures in democratic a setting is law making and acting as watchdog on behalf of the people, without which democracy becomes messed up. Odinga (2014) noted that:
If the constitution is the encapsulation of the goals, beliefs and group will of the general population, the parliament is the aggregate protector and watchdog of the aspiration, ideals and collective will of the people. If the constitution is the social contract between the people and government, the parliament is the supporter for the general population and the mediator of the national hobby. For sure, if the constitution is like the Bible, Quran and other religious treatises the covenant between the people and their leaders, the parliament is the storage area and guard of the augurs of the political covenant and social contract between the people and government.
Accordingly, for any democracy to grow, the legislature not just make laws for the great requesting of the general public (counting assignment laws) yet should too guarantee that such laws and others are not disregarded by other arms like the executive (Poteet, 2010). This it does this by acting as watch-dog over their policies through its oversight function. Notably, good number constitutions have a propensity to document these two important functions of the legislature. As it were, legislatures accomplish their tasks through men and women of demonstrated respectability and great character that shun allurements of tumbling to such issues enacted against. Ipso facto legislature can be considered as a sub-unit of good governance and democratic sustenance.
In obvious appreciation of the universal concept of democracy, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as amended (1999) in Section 14, (2a) make known that “independence belongs to the people of Nigeria from whom government through this Constitution derives all its powers and authority.” Furthermore, sub-sections 2b and 2c in that order state that the security and welfare of the people shall be the most important purpose of government and the participation of the people in their government shall be ensured.
To pull off sustainable democracy, it is interested to note that we must understand that there is more to democracy than elections and voting in which the very fact that a nation chooses her leaders through the ballot box does not unavoidably translate to democracy. There are sure fundamentals whereupon any democracy can be supported, nurtured and maintained or sustained. These are power of the general population, majority rule and minority rights, the rule of law and good governance, respect for civil and political rights, mass literacy, economic prosperity, social development, free press, and an independent judiciary and whereby sustainable democracy is attainable when the conditions listed above are prevalent in the society.
Solitary in recent times, the members of the Bauchi State House of Assembly conceded a vote of confidence on the leadership of the Bauchi State House of Assembly and that is another attainment which shows that there is a very good working rapport and there is a very good understanding between all members of the Bauchi State House of Assembly.
Aside from that, the Bauchi State Assembly as of the time that it came in up to this jiffy it has been noted that a number of laws has been passed amounting to about 43. Out of the 43 about 19 to 20 are member sponsored bills. This is the first run through whereby individuals of the Bauchi State House of Assembly have submitted a private or member bill whereby it experienced the due procedure and in the long run was signed into law. So that is a very good development for us.
From a source recently in Bauchi at the Assembly complex revealed that the legislators and the executive arms will work agreeably to make certain easy delivery of democracy dividends which the people of the state are yearning for.
Intensification state legislatures has come to the front banner as the National Association of the State Assembly Legislators ask for the assistance of the National Institute for Legislative Studies(NILS) to boost its capacity in strengthening governance.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Consequently, Nigeria is still struggling of democratic consolidation, the end goals of which remain at least a decade from achievement. The nation has made various imperative strides, but a number of negative trends could reverse this progress.
· Persistent ethnic and religious grievances susceptible to elite manipulation;
· Political and economic over-centralization under the executive; and
· Poverty amid massive oil revenue, disheartenment public faith in the federation and the political system overall.
· Authoritarian, clientelistic patterns of politics with elites acting extra-legally;
· Ethnic militias, some of which are growing increasingly autonomous of their former politician masters;
· Biases in the electoral system, especially the state commissions;
· Poor executive respect of legislative and judicial constitutional prerogatives, especially in budgetary matters;
· Weak lower-level judiciary;
· Endemic police corruption encouraged from the highest levels and in response to the lack of proper compensation of the police force (as well as other civil servants);
· The lack of a proper independent judiciary, especially the lower courts;
· A lack of adequate human rights safeguards in the enforcement of law; and
· Confused roles of federal and state enforcement agencies
· Rising political violence;
· Illicit channeling of public funds into party activities;
· Undemocratic internal governance of the political parties stifling genuine intra-party competition;
· Electoral commission (INEC) lack of independence from the presidency and calculated incompetence resulting in poor conduct of the 2003 elections, and likely the 2007 elections as well;
· Increased intimidation of the media and harassment of political opponents over 2005-2006; and
· Weak checks/autonomy between branches and levels of government.
· Elite and class nature of politics: poor Nigerians excluded from substantive involvement;
· Undemocratic political parties;
· “Sit tight” incumbency syndrome;
· Settler-indigene conflicts over problematic citizenship laws; and
· Youth exclusion and hopelessness.
Accordingly, pent-up ethnic- and religious based tensions have ignited communal violence in a number of states across the federation and also, ethnic and religious associations are playing an increasingly prominent political role.
Nigeria’s great cultural miscellany, on the other hand, is not in itself why agreement remains elusive. However, class differences between the few rich (of all ethnicities) and the masses of poor create an environment in which culture-based competition flourishes. Grinding poverty amidst a centralized, oil-dependent economy, combined with the centralization of political power in the hands of the executive, exacerbate cultural differences and promote intense political competition. This economic and political centralization promotes a zero-sum standpoint on politics that deepens the divisions among Nigerians and this makes it difficult to realize agreement on issues of common good.
Notably, the key problem of federalism has been at the heart of the struggle for consensus. Getting this right has in the past been the most difficult stumbling block to national unity.
The trounce of the third term armored another serious democratic trend in Nigeria: an increasingly
assertive National Assembly.
However, politics in Nigeria is still basically an elite game, along the lines presented above: rich, male, and old. This closed system is propagated by what Nigerians refer to as the “sit tight” or incumbency syndrome, in which elected officers refuse to relinquish their seats in government despite their poor performance, and utilize any means to stay in office. Not only does this result in an inadequate circulation of elites, but it also perpetuate systematic discrimination against three primary groups: Women, the poor, and non indigenes.
On the other hand, solitary of the political realities of our fashionable global system is democracy, a political process which focuses on the prerequisite and of the essence of governments to rule only by the Consent of the majority. The trendy belief is that appropriately understood and practised, democracy can get rid of the layers of national socio-economic and political obscurity.
However, nations that have reached the Status of full-grown democracy continue to be adamant that it will be extremely difficult to get things done in pluralistic society with poor records of democratic values and practices.
By way of things are going politically in fashionable Nigeria, it is very uncertain, whether Nigerians will ever realise the dreams of allowing democratic system of belief to influence the Country’s political life.
Within this link, democratic veracity implies that all Nigerians must be willing to take difficult democratic decisions, and must see the benefits in supporting their Country’s democratic Institutions. With the current state of democracy in the country, many Nigerians have openly wondered whether the struggle for political independence was a worthwhile exercise.
Without a doubt, all is not well with democracy in Nigeria. Tranquil, democracy remains the only viable and sustainable weapon for tackling national backwardness and for securing recognition and respect from the international community. Nobody will ever question the political reality that a solid equitable establishment will give Nigerians the chance to choose their own particular future.
Moreover, there is need for all Nigerians to work together democratically, and explicitly express, indeed, make obvious their commitment to the development of democracy.
However, one of the disturbing characteristics of the Nigerian democracy is that the Nigerian leaders have not demonstrated sufficient support for the country’s democratic process, especially in times of increasing political uncertainties. The vastness of the Nigerian elite has practically abandoned political participation in government and governance. In addition they have left the process of democratic growth in the hands of the ‘politicians,” which may well make clear the low level of adherence to democratic dealings and values in the nation
On the other hand, one of the reasons why most of the exceedingly development States are experiencing unwavering democracy is the undiluted commitments of their elite to ensuring right political governance. It must be continually stressed that Nigeria will find it hard to rise to the much preferred political status of becoming one of the wor steady and progressive democracy, if the Nigerian elite choose to remain on the political fence, or exist as mere political spectators. Certainly, the Nigeria elite can, just as their overseas counterparts have established, contribute to the development Of the Nigerian democracy. Greater elite involvement in the country’s democratic progression must become the defining features of Nigeria’s political System. Regardless of marking ten years of democracy, the political approach of the majority of the Nigerian elite has been principally negative. It therefore shows that Nigeria’s efforts to press forward democratically will have need of a new shift in favour of greater elite involvement in the nation’s politics.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
However, the significance of this study is that, it will help Bauchi State House of Assembly to create positive impact on sustaining democracy that required of our country and likewise to reduce the possible jeopardy which would lead to unrealized democracy sustainability. As well to provide solutions to improving democracy in the country Nigeria and look for ways to reduced constraints to achieving the stability. This is done through elite full participation as well as involvement and letting the public to be informed at the right time or given the right information will go a long way to improve legislative sustainability and eliminate double jeopardy. To develop strategies of that will help the State as well as the country grow through institutionalizing democracy such as allowing elite contribution, suggestions and taking part effectively so to ascertain legislative efficacy.
· It is well-established that the suggestion from this study will help the Bauchi State House of Assembly have more knowledge on what sustaining democracy is all about.
· The product of this work will help in illuminating the repercussion of not sustaining democracy so that most legislators and other influential personnel will understand the good panorama for alternative.
· In addition, the result of this work will help in enlightening the problems of negative impact regarding democracy so that government will figure out the good view of intervention
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The general purpose is to assess the impact of legislative on sustaining Nigeria democracy,
Specifically the study sought to:
• examine the impact of democracy sustainability
• determine legislative sustainability of democracy
• ascertain the trustworthiness of sustaining democracy
• determining the efficacy of sustaining democracy
To provide solution to the stated problem, the following research questions, were put forward:
• To what extent would democracy sustainability be determined?
• To what extent will sustaining democracy be examined?
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