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Gender inequality has being a source of global concern for quite a long time in the modern eras. The concern about it arises because it reduces the productive forces of most societies, it deters, especially, women from actualizing their potentials and it also diminishes the economic wellbeing of most of the world’s population. It is within this context that this research work is carried out to investigate the existences and extents of gender inequality in Para-Military Services in Nigeria and of course, find out whether or not, it has renders services providing for by Kaduna State Emergency Fire Services to public ineffective. To achieve this, the study consulted different literatures relevant to topic under review. The study furthers interviews the Chief Fire Commander, Chief Training Commander and the Executive Secretary of Kaduna State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) and conducted a survey in Kaduna Metropolis in which case, 150 questionnaires were distributed to both men and women. Apart from tables showing the analysis of the responses by respondents, a Chi-Square test was `` carried out without SPSS using 2” by 3” contingency table. The result placed the test value at 2.1 against a critical value of 5.991 meaning that, the statistical difference is by chance. Looking at the outcome, the study accept the null hypotheses which says “the effectiveness of services provided for, by Kaduna State Emergency Fire Services is independent of gender.” 



1.01     Background to the Study

The world population is increasing daily and nature has made it necessary for men and women to contribute decently to its sustenance by improving upon it: through advancing human knowledge such as technology, information, managerial skills, civic responsibilities and laws. The advancement of human knowledge and compensation for individual owners of it, has helped in no small measure in human’s ability to direct and shape his/her destiny. However, human’s ability to grasp knowledge or work or returns on work of whatever forms is limited, owing to factors relating to culture, values, religion and depending on the ruling system adopted by nations and states at any given time in history. A sizeable numbers of some culture’s population contributes little or nothing to its socio-economic development because they are not allowed to participate or are never consulted when decision that has profound impacts on their lifecycle is taken. This is so because the norms or rules of the societies in which they are conscious of refused to empower them, therefore their capacity to lead a descent life is being constraining. The spectacle is observes within the domain of gender inequality.

Gender is the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being a male or female (UNDP, 2009). Gender as opposes to sexist which highlight the biological make up of individuals, is the roles within norms and values vesting upon a male or a female in every society. These roles or values may varies over time and place. Therefore, gender inequality or gender bias occurs whenever someone’s attitudes, decisions and actions towards an individual are based on that individual’s gender (CWRN, 2001:169)  

For more than two decades the goals of reducing gender inequality has held a prominent place in International Organizations and National Strategy Statements (Grown 2008). Millennium Development Goals three (G D Gs), reflects the global attention to issues of gender inequality and it once provide the impetus for government to eliminate gender inequality in primary and Secondary Education in 2005 and at all levels in 2015 (UNICEF, 2013).

With a population of One Hundred and Sixty Two Millions (162.5m) in 2006 (UNFPA, 2011, p.119), Nigeria is no doubt the most populous country in sub - Saharan Africa meaning that, One in every four people in sub-Saharan Africa lives in Nigeria. The Eighty Million (49%) of Nigeria's 162.5m population are women although only 15% households are classify de jure female headed.

In the Northern part of Nigeria, inequality is more acutely felt than in the Southern part of the country. This may be due to religious and cultural factors since it is said that development outcomes for girls and women are worse in the northern part; where poverty level is so high  than in the South :72% in the North -East compared with 26% in South East considering the fact that, national average is 54% ( UNDP, 2010, p:10). In most parts of the Northern Nigeria, impact of inequality on the lives of girls and women is reflected starkly in education outcome and even subsistence agriculture where women men and women are involve, men are five times more likely than women to own land, women own only 4% of land in the North -East (B C N, 2012).

The half of Kaduna State estimated population of Seven Million Four Hundred and Seventy Four Thousand, Three Hundred and Sixty Nine (7,474,369) are women’ (KMEP, 2013). However, both gender are in constant struggle to improve upon their skills through acquiring education both in the vocational and conventional Schools. Education, of course, has increases their economic wellbeing whether in their household works or in the farmland trying to raise crops and bringing up animals or as employees dedicating to their responsibilities. In Kaduna State it has not been easier to ascertain the extents of equality or inequality in the contributions given by both men and women from the households to the work place considering the important role both gender are expected to play by their communities in its socio-economic development. It is against this background that the study intense to conduct a research to find out whether or not there has been gender equality in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service and the effects it has had on its service delivery to people in the state from 2010-2017.  

1.02 Statement of the Problem

Kaduna State Fire Service as an establishment of the State Emergency Management Agency, charge with the responsibilities of saving lives and properties has seemingly not engages the services of women. Women are so far seeing contributing their ideas and labour force in all the sectors of public service from the local, State to Federal levels even in corporate organization nevertheless with some levels of inequality between them and the male counterpart.

    The study wants to find out why women who are regarding as important components of the society and contributors in the provisions of all manners of social services, including the army, are scarcely or even not found in the public services rendering by Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010-2017.

1.03       Research Questions

The following are questions the study would attempt to answer:

        i.            What is the ratio of men to women recruited into Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010-2017?

      ii.            What are the rules guiding or limiting the recruitment, promotion and transfer of either males or females personnel in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010-2017?

    iii.            What has been the effectiveness and efficiency of public services provided for by the State Emergency Fire Service without either the males or females personnel from 2010-2017?

1.04     Research Objectives

The research has three objectives to achieve:-

i.                    To examine the ratio of men to women recruited and promoted in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010 - 2017.

ii.                  To examine the rules limiting either, the males or females recruitment and promotion in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010- 2017.

iii.                To discuss what would have been the levels of effectiveness of public service delivering of Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service if the sector had achieves gender parity from 2010 to 2017.  

1.05     Research Assumptions

The research assumptions are that:-

        i.            Women were not given fair chance in the recruitment and promotion of personnel of Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service for the reasons of gender discrimination from 2010-2017.

      ii.            There is no formal rule limiting the recruitment and promotion of men or women in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service from 2010-2017.

    iii.            Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service is not effective in providing social and economic services as a result gender inequality in the sector from 2010-2017.

1.06     Significance of the study.

When the research is concluded, it would afford Government and the general public the opportunity to know the extent of gender inequality in Kaduna State Fire Service. The research would reveals whether or not gender inequality has negative or positive impacts on the service provided for by the organization in its bid to save lives and properties of people in the state. It is hopeful that the research would stimulates the public and government to act immediately in whichever manner to ensure that gender relationship is not structured in a way that will hampers the services render by the establishment.

  1.07   Scope and delimitation.

The research would give more attention to study of gender parity in Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service and how gender relationship has being impacting upon the services provided by the establishment to public in the State. The causes of gender inequality are not the primary interest of this research work as it could lead to the research delving into issues concerning religion or cultural matters which the study has no intention of going into from the on-set. Therefore, the work would pay attention to the extent of effective service conveyed by Kaduna State Emergency Fire Service when gender equality is achieved.

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