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1.1 Background to the Study
The socio-economic development of any society is intemperately depending on the nature, character and pattern of its administrative leadership. Since independence, Nigeria witnessed different administrations or regimes with their concomitant implications on the socio-economic development and well-being of its citizens.
Most if not all African countries are still strangulating to attain a high degree or level in the socio-economic development of their various societies till today. Although, this failure if often linked to external forces which most a time played insignificant role as the expense of forces or factors within, that are more harmful to the growth and socio-economic development of these countries (Nwodo, 2016).
The most prominent among, is the inability of administrative leadership across these countries to tap, initiate and transform the societies in line with the resources (both human & Material) at their disposal within their geographical domain. In other words, the socio-economic development of any society is intemperately depending on the nature, character and pattern of its administration. For instance; Temilola (2015) noted that in terms of resources, Nigeria is endowed with enormous natural and human resources sufficient to place it among the first 20 developed countries of the world. It is also the Africa's largest producer of oil and the sixth largest oil producing country in the world. Yet, these has not been translated or reflected in the socio-economic conditions of the Nigerian citizens.
Since independence to date, Nigeria witnessed fourteen different administrations with their concomitant implications on the structure of socio-economic development and well-being of the citizens across the country, despite its abundant human and natural resources. The return of civil rule in 1999 gave Nigerian citizens a high expectation that the new era of socio- economic development and welfare of citizens has came to stay, but today these expectations were defeated by the high level of poverty, unemployment, corruption, insecurity among others that deteriorated the inferior social, economic and well-being of the common men in the country (Gambari, 2015).
The political leadership of the country since independence is responsible for entrenching corruption in Nigeria and, by extension, had impeded meaningful socio-economic development. It is an incontrovertible fact that corruption has been the bane of Nigeria’s development. Thus, without mincing words the phenomenon has ravaged the country and destroyed most of what is held as cherished national values. Unfortunately, the political class saddled with the responsibility of directing the affairs of the country have been the major culprit in perpetrating this act. Regrettably, since independence a notable surviving legacy of the successive political leadership both civilian and military that have managed the affairs of the country at different times has been the institutionalisation of corruption in all agencies of the public service, which, like a deadly virus, has subsequently spread to the private sector of the country (El-Rufai, 2014).
Indeed, it is a paradox that Nigeria, the world's eighth largest exporter of crude oil, a country endowed with many resources, still has more than 70 percent of its population living below the poverty line as a result of corruption and economic mismanagement. Pathetically, the logic of the Nigerian political leadership class has been that of self-service as some of the leaders are mired in the pursuit of selfish and personal goals at the expense of broader national interests (Akinjide, 2015). Consequently, emphasis has been on personal aggrandisement and self-glorification with the result that corruption has become an euphemism for explaining political leadership in Nigeria in relation to the management of national wealth.
History has shown that no nation of the world grew and enjoyed steady development in virtually all spheres of its national life without experiencing good and selfless political leadership. This is largely because qualitative growth and development has always been an outcome of good governance.
Commenting on the experience of the Nigerian nation, the renowned novelist, Chinua Achebe, insisted that the root cause of the Nigerian predicament should be laid squarely at the foot of bad leadership. “The trouble with Nigeria,” Achebe argued, is simply and squarely a failure of leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character. There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land, climate, water, air, or anything else. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to their responsibility, to the challenge of personal example, which is the hallmark of true leadership (Achebe, 1984: 1).
The state of Nigeria’s pitiable socio-economic development has been a direct consequence of the actions and inactions of the leadership class that has managed the affairs and wealth of the country since independence. Corruption does not operate in a vacuum but in a social context especially in administrative sphere. Anugwom (2005), Nwachukwu (2006) and Achabe (2007) have identified it as a cog in the wheel of the progress of the public service in Nigeria. Indeed, in many ways it can be argued that the popular diagnosis of the root of Nigeria’s political and under-development since independence is the fact of pervasive corruption in public life.
Despite the corruption crusade of the military interventionists, they were themselves caught in the web of corruption. Acknowledging the corrupt nature of the military Dudley (2012) noted that, the effects of years of dictatorial and corrupt governance by successive military administration are glaring manifest in the poor state of development in all the sectors of the nation’s life especially the level of poverty and low quality of life of its people, the oil boom, arising from the sudden upsurge in the foreign revenue from the petroleum products exports fuelled the growth of corruption under the various military administration. The military has been blamed for allowing corruption to grow hydra-headed, stifling development (Shehu, 2006).
On one hand, the current administration under President Buhari's leadership, during his campaign period vowed to end all the social and economic menaces if elected into office in 2015. On the basis of his campaign promise, many people believed that having assumed office he once occupied as a military officer and for which he contested four times, his administration is expected to urgently tackle several challenges that have besieged Nigeria over the last three decades (Freedom, 2015).
Against this background, many observers believe that a focused political leader is desperately needed to rescue Nigeria "from the depth of chronic indiscipline, disorder and decadence". This accounted for the goodwill that greeted the emergence of General Muhammadu Buhari as the sixth democratically elected President of Nigeria in May 2015. Buhari is seen as a leader with firm character, integrity and determination to turn Nigeria around and change in political administration that could have an impact on the economy.
The Buhari-led administration is expected to urgently tackle several challenges that have hindered economic prosperity, sustainable security and overall national development in Nigeria. These challenges include but are not limited to terrorism, violent conflicts, widespread poverty, youth unemployment, electricity shortage, and corruption. For President Muhammadu Buhari to make a success of his avowed intentions to bring the change that Nigeria needs, he must put in place the right policies, programmes and personnel (Obasanjo, 2015). It is against this background that this work attempts an appraisal of the Buhari administration.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The economy of Nigeria has not been stable because of changes in political administration; hence the struggle for a particular vision changes in administration should be pursed vigorously that could yield dividends of democracy.
Despite its huge resource endowment, majority of its population wallow in abject poverty while unemployment and insecurity is growing. Its economic fortune has been dwindling due to a fall in the global price of crude oil. The result is that the country has been caught in-between affluence and affliction. Writers on Nigeria’s political evolution posit that bad leadership is a major factor why Nigeria has been reduced to a giant with clay feet (Yusuf, 2010).
The challenges facing President Buhari are as huge and diverse as the country itself. There is no doubt that President Buhari is aware of these and many other challenges that have hindered economic prosperity, sustainable security and overall national development in Nigeria. He highlighted some of these challenges in his inaugural speech on 29 May 2015.
There are several political challenges that stand in the way of progress in Nigeria. However, many believe that Buhari’s administration must begin with tackling pervasive corruption and huge cost of governance. Corruption is at the root of many of Nigeria’s problems. It has permeated through public and private life in Nigeria, with degenerative effect on national value, institutions of governance and the rule of law. For instance, out of the $60 billion being illegally siphoned out of Africa annually, Nigeria accounts for over 68% of the figure (Lawan, 2017). Consequently, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in Transparency International Corruption Perception Index over the years. Nigeria ranked 136 out of 174 surveyed countries in 2014, making it the 38th most corrupt nation.
This research work on the basis of the observed challenges confronting Nigeria development efforts makes an appraisal of the Buhari administration and its effort to combat corruption to facilitate development.
1.3 Research Questions
Research questions are very fundamental when research of this magnitude is to be carried out. The research questions include:
1. How an appraisal does affect Nigeria development challenges?
2. What is the effort of Buhari’s administration to address the challenges?
3. What are the successes of the Buhari’s administration?
4. What are the factors militating against the Buhari’s administration?
5. What alternative strategies can be proffered for Nigeria’s economic development?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to assess the change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria. An appraisal of the Muhammadu Buhari administration. The specific objectives are:
1. To appraise Nigeria development challenges.
2. To appraise Buhari’s administration efforts to address the challenges.
3. To estimate the successes of the Buhari’s administration.
4. To estimate the factors militating against the Buhari’s administration.
5. To proffer alternative strategies for Nigeria’s economic development.
1.5 Assumption of the Study
The study adopts this basic assumption:
The change in political administration of Buhari has no significant impact on the economy of Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
- This research work would add to the existing literature on the issue of change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria, it would contribute immensely to academic field of studies especially in the area of political dispensation.
- In addition, this work will be of benefit to future scholars who would like to carry out research similar to or related to this topic.
On the empirical perspective, policy makers will equally find the study useful as it will enable them identifies present policy lapses on the change in political administration.
- The research work will discuss the various challenges facing the country through the change in political administration; the study will also reveal the effect of the change in political administration on the economy of Nigeria. The study will further assist the present administration in making good decisions that will affect the economy of Nigeria positively.
- For the practitioners in these institutions and other administrators, the finding of the study will provide them with more insight on the challenges of
these mechanisms with a view to re-adjusting the policies that would address or brings change in political administration in the country as a whole.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work focuses on the change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria. An appraisal of the Muhammadu Buhari administration. The reason for choosing this particular topic is to ascertain the objectives that could be realized on the basis of political leadership of the country.
1.8 Research Methodology
The research is mostly description and analytical, based mainly on the use of secondary source of data collection. Collection from libraries, books and internet sources play a major part in providing necessary information for this work.
Books, journal articles, conference proceedings, seminar papers and other related publications will be used in gathering secondary information for this research.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The study is centered on the change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria. An appraisal of the Muhammadu Buhari administration. The study as expected had encountered a number of constraints in the event that some of the findings of the research do not happen to be accurate. The reason should therefore be attributed to some of the factors, however less relevant effort have been made so far towards making these research findings as authentic as in other research but they did not in any way affect the outcome of the study.
1.10 Definition of Key Terms or Concepts
Marx (2011), sees administration as a determined action taken in pursuit of a conscious purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of resources aimed towards achieving the societal goals. He further defines it as the organism and use of men and materials to accomplish a purpose.
In the same direction, Simon (2011) maintained that administration is the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common societal goals. He concluded that administration has to do with getting things done, with the accomplishment of defined objectives.
Sears (2010) sees development as a process whereby the population of a particular society are involved in solving in personal and community problem generated by that of society through participation in sharing the cost and benefits of resultant economic development in a series of changes within a given society, whereby people have increase skills and capacity greater freedom, creative self discipline responsibility and material well being where poverty, unemployment and inequality are highly reduce.
A difference in a state of affairs at different points in time (Combs, 2012)
Is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries (Fafunwa, 2009).
Relating to the ideas or strategies of a political party or group in politics or done in the interests of status or power within an organization rather than as a matter of principle (Johnson, 2013).
Economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources (Margret, 2010).
Methodology is an orderly procedure used in conducting an enquiry. Secondary source is the source of data collection and gathering adopted for this study. It also entails to use literature on the subject, journal and newspapers written by eminent scholars on the area of the study.
Also government publications, library materials and text books on the change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria.
1.11 Organization of the Chapters
This study is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one contains background to the study, statements of the problem, objectives of the study, definition of the major terms, scope of the study, limitation of the study, methodology and organization of the chapters.
Chapter two, is the Theoretical Framework and literature review on the change in political administration and it impact on the economy of Nigeria. It will also discuss the challenges facing Muhammadu Buhari administration to effect the necessary changes that could bring positive impact on the economy of Nigeria, effect of change in political administration has on the economic development of Nigeria and the best approaches to be adopted by the Federal Government of Nigeria to resolve the adverse change in the political administration.
Chapter three focuses on research design, population of the study, research instrumentation, validation of the instrument, and administration of the instrument and method of analysis.
Chapter four deals with the presentation and analysis of results. While
Chapter five dwells on summary, conclusion and recommendations.
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