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This study dwells on the Assessment of the Implications of Trans-border Crimes on

security in Nigeria (Cases study of Nigeria-Niger border). Trans-border crime involves the

movement of persons, goods and services across the sovereign national boundaries in a

manner devoid of acceptable norms and standard. These illegal enterprise not only threaten

aspect of our states sovereignty and security, but they also prove the permeability of our

national borders vulnerability of state institution. The trans-border crimes include illicit

drug trafficking, illegal firearms trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering,

terrorism, smuggling, corruption, theft of credit cards etc. The study set to find out the

causes, nature, pattern and implications of trans-border crimes on the Nigerian national

security. The data were generated by the use of questionnaire, and in-depth interviews. The

data collected from the survey were analysed descriptively using frequencies and

percentage. While data collected from the in-depth interviews were transcribed and used to

support quantitative data. The findings indicated that, the issue of trans-border crimes can

be attributed to so many factors among which includes financial gain involved in the such

crime, porosity of the national boundaries, internal wars experienced by some neighbouring

countries, neglect of border communities in the erection of infrastructural facilities,

depressed economy etc. on the nature and pattern of trans-border crimes, the findings

indicated that, these criminals can compete with legal economic system and promote

corruption and undermine the authority of the state, paving way for violent extremism and

terrorism. On the measures adopted by the government and law enforcement agents to

control the menace, the findings indicated that a number of measures were implemented

some of which are: intensive international boundary patrol, check points at the seaport,


airports and along the border areas. And on the international sphere, Nigeria is

collaboration with ECOWAS member nations, established a workshop which was designed

to enable the chief of police. Customs and gendarmerie, to initiate a process of establishing

on information exchange network and strategy for the control of the proliferation of light

weapons in the sub region etc. on the issue of the challenges ahead the findings indicates

that, in most cases the Nigerian security agencies were unable to provide much needed

security against the activities of trans-border criminals in the country etc. it is in the light of

the above therefore, the following short and long term measures are recommended for

consideration; government must employ modern strategies in handling the border areas, to

train and equip the security agencies with appropriate weapons that are superior to those of

the trans-border criminals. Moreover, government should address the issue of

unemployment, neglect of border communities and social injustice so as to improve the

socio-economic conditions of the people living along the border areas, and also subsidizing

the tendency of turning the crime as an alternative to survival.



1.1       Background to the Study

Nigeria and other countries sharing its border except Cameroon and Chad are all

members of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). As a result of

certain protocols, the citizens of these countries are to enjoy freedom of movement. The

objective of ECOWA’s policy is to make West Africa free trading zone, likes that of

European Union. At the same time, migration become a subject of state policy especially

for the government of Nigeria with the increasing rate of criminality recorded at the borders

which comes in form of smuggling, trafficking (drug and human), illegal aliens, harassment

of people, illicit drug trafficking, Advance Fee Fraud (419), money laundering, credit card

Fraud, terrorism, bankruptcy, religious carnage fuelled by imported extremism which

resulted to the death of innocent Nigerians and threat to national peace and security.

Most of the illicit arms in circulation in the country found their way into Nigeria through

the borders, of either Niger which is about 1,497km, Benin 773km, Cameroon 1,960km, or

Chad with 87km (total 4,407km).The expansion of French and British imperialism in the

period 1890-1905 demarcated the line which would become the modern Niger – Nigeria

border. During colonial rule, French and English languages were implanted in Niger and

Nigeria respectively on each side of the border, along with cultural, educational and

political traditions.

When one talks of security, it is about security of life and property, security of

economy and economic areas of the country, security of food and raw materials resources,

the security of environment and the people, the security of environment and national


integrity and the security of preservation of all that society considered to be important and

valuable (Imobighe, 2000). Security is normally a priority of every nation Nigeria

inclusive, due to fact that it affects not only the sat

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