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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Manpower development has been one of the fundamental issues that have consistently attracted the interest and concern of succeeding government in Nigeria since independence. The Federal Government of Nigeria (1981) realised that if independence was to have meaningful impact on the general well being of its citizen, it must be complemented promptly and definitely by a rapid transformation of the economy to achieve self-reliance. The initial effort of achieving rapid national development were concentrated on the expansion of formal education institution at all levels, and the product were expected to have acquired the skills, knowledge attitude to meet the needs of the vital sector of the economy.
It has been established that the greatest assets of a nation are its human resources (men and women, old and young) who are capable of participating in productive labour, capable, natural resources, international trade etc. It become increasingly clear, in government, industry and commerce that economic growth and economic advancement of the country required the services of trained workers and professionals who possesses technological skills and or executive capacity to provide specialized services of all sorts.
Most nations today are development conscious. The less developed countries are in a state of war against poverty, ill health, ignorance and dominance by stronger nations. They are no longer willing to entrust their future exclusively to the forces of colonial masters. Even the advance nations are committed to growth, and the more rapid the better. These advance nations are reaching the greater achievement like exploring the outer space and other plants. This universal quest for growth is motivated by rising aspirations for economic, social and political progress and it is based upon the optimistic conviction than man, in this age science can move forward by leaps instead of steps.
In essence, the difference in levels of economic development of countries is largely a reflection of the difference in the quality of human resource. The key element in this proposition is that the values, attitudes, general orientation and quality of the people of a country determine its economic development. The shift from manufacturing to service and the increasing pace of technological change are making human resources the crucial ingredient top the nations well being and growth. And in service-oriented industries like banks and railways, the quality, quantity and utilization of human resource become more important.
A nation with abundance of physical resources will not benefit unless human resources make use of them. Hence, human resources are solely responsible of making use of natural resources and for the Transformation of traditional economies into the modern and industrial economies. Lack of organization of human resources is largely responsible in the backwardness of a nation. Countries are underdeveloped because their people are underdeveloped.
Doubtlessly, the most significant resource of any organization is often said to be the people. Such claims appear in organizational annual report mission statement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
The cruel nature of Nigerian entrepreneurs have over the years reflected on their emphasis on high profitability without due consideration of the training of the employee that will make this possible. Ogunyomi et al (2011) noted that in recent times, there has been a contraction of personnel activities, with staff welfare issue being relegated to the background and business-centred approach to employee relations being given prime of place. This is readily noticed in the Nigeria banking industry and other industries where the employees’ private lives are jeopardized in the course of trying to meet the high demands and targets of the management. Young university graduates who are ignorant of what is happening in the industry often fall in this trap and the economy is not helping matters in any way.
This study is designed to evaluate the activities of the trade union as an alternative avenue for manpower development in the country. It’s high time the problem of poor manpower development is visited and a lasting solution provided.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study can be stated as follows:
1. To highlight and justify the efficacy of the role of Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC) in manpower development in Nigeria.
2. To evaluate the contribution of Nigeria Labour Congress to Nigeria Economy.
3. To identify the problems associated with Manpower Development in Nigeria.
4. To justify the need for an active Manpower Policy in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The questions for this research are
(i) What impact does active unionism has on the working condition of workers in Nigeria?
(ii) What role does the operation of the trade union play in the national development of Nigeria?
(iii) Does the operation of trade union affect the political stability of Nigeria?
(iv) How does economic recession affect the survival of industries vis-à-vis vibrant unionism in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1a Ho : That active Unionism could not lead to better conditions of service among workers
b Ha : That active Unionism could lead to better condition of service among workers
2a Ho : That provision of training programme does not contribute to good quality Manpower in the economy.
b Ha : That provision of Training programmes contribute to good quality Manpower in the economy.
3a Ho : Voluntary membership by workers could not affect the effectiveness of Unionism.
b Ha : Voluntary membership by workers affect the effectiveness of Unionism.
4a Ho : That economic recession does not affect survival of industries vis-à-vis vibrant Unionism in Nigeria.
b Ha : That economic recession affect the survival of industries vis-à-
vis vibrant Unionism in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work is to evaluate and analysis the contribution of Trade Union to Manpower Development in Nigeria. It is hoped that it would contribute to the promotion of the existing frontier or boundary between human knowledge and the role of trade unions in the development of manpower.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Survey research method shall be used to gather information from respondents concerning their opinions on manpower development in Nigeria with reference to the role of Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC). The questionnaire to be used shall be carefully administered and a total of one hundred (100) people would be selected, for the purpose of this analysis. The sampling shall be done randomly so that the respondents shall cut across different works of life in Lagos State. This could to some extent give a basis for generalisation.
The data, which would be collected from the questionnaire, will be analysed using the simple percentage method and chi-square, goodness of fit. This will make the analysis of the data more concise and simple.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will be limited to the role, which the Labour union plays in manpower development in Nigeria. The research work will be so limited because of the limited availability of data and time. It will also cover some of the publications of the Nigerian Labour Congress.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i) MANPOWER:- Manpower is the total supply of people available for work or services. It could also be regarded as work of one of the recipients of a nations industry, it can be seem as power in terms of men available or required for a task on purpose.
ii) MANPOWER: According to Tobias (1969), Manpower can be defined as people, humanity and society with all its aspirations, needs and capacities. Manpower in the economic sense is managerial, scientific engineering, technical, craftsmen and other skills which are employed in creating, designing and developing organizations, managing and operating productive and services enterprises and economic institutions.
iii) DEVELOPMENT:- This can be seen to occur when there is a noticeable set-up, output progress in the performance of the resource (either human or material) required for organizational or national building.
iv) MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT:- Haribison F and Myers C. A. (1964) defined manpower development or human resource development as a process of increasing the knowledge, skilled and the capacities of all the people of the society. Manpower development can also be defined as the gradual growth through progressive changes of the personnel available of components to serve in a nation, no doubt, manpower development play a crucial role in the growth and development progress of a nation.
v) HUMAN CAPITAL: Human capital can be defined as the stock of capital embodied in people. These are investment that human beings make in themselves to improve their quality. Education on the job training helps migration and some other activities in human beings are undertaken. Human capital in essence is the present value of past investment in the skills of people.
1.7 ORGANISATIONAL SPECIFICATION
This research work will be divided into five chapters. The first chapter will be introduction. Chapter two will focus on the literature review and theoretical framework on the role of trade union in the development of Manpower in Nigeria.
The third Chapter will be based on the research methodology to be adopted in the study
Chapter four would comprise the estimation and analysis of data while the final chapter, which is chapter five, comprises the summary of findings, conclusion, and recommendation and suggestion for future studies.
Akpala, Agwu (1991): Principles of Management – A Nigerian Approach, Fourth Dimension Publishers Ltd.
Brech, E.F.L. (1975) ed: Principles and Practices of Management, London: Longman Publishing Co. Ltd.
Drucker, Peter (1975): Management, London: Heinemann Publishing Co. Ltd.
Huber, G.P. (1980): Managerial Decision-Making, Scott Foresman Glenview.
McFarland, D.E. (1976): Management Principles Co. Inc., New York.
Ogunyomi O. P., Shadare A. O. and Chidi O. C. (2011) Current Trends and Future Directions of Human Resource Management Practices: A Review of Literature. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences. Issue 29, pp. 19 – 25.
Thierauf, Robert C. Klekamp and David W. Geeding (1977): Principles and Practices of Management, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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