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Ethyl Corp v. Environmental Protection Agency, 54, f.2d 1 (Cd. C. Cir. 1976)

Environmental Defense Fund, Inc. v. Andrus, 596 f. 2d 848 (9th Cir. 1979) 329

Defenders of Wildlife v. Andrus 627 f.2d 1238 (D.C. Cir 1980) 325

Environmental Defense Fund Inc. v. Massey, 986 f.2d 528 (D.C. Cir.1993) 332                                       

American Min. Congress v. EPA (AMC 11) 907f.2d 1179 (D.C.Cir. 1990) 203

Bell v. Town of Wells, 557 A.2d 168 (Me. 1989), 268

Cal State v. Block, 690 f.2d 753 (9th Cir. 1982) 330

Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. 129 S. Ct 365, 172 L. Ed 2d 24a (2008), 334

National Wildlife Federation V. Grouch 693 f.3d 1369 (D.C. Cir 1977) 164.








EPA                Environment Protection Agency (US)

CFR                Code of Federal Regulations

NWLR             Nigeria Weekly Law Report

NLR                Nigeria Law Report

NMLR              Nigeria Monthly Law Report

NAPE               National Agency for the Protection of the Environment (US)

NEPA               National Environment Policy Act (US)

Superfund       Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation

and Liability Act (US) (also known as (CERCLA)

TSCA              Toxic Substances Control Act (US)

SARA              Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (US)

SEA                Single European Act

SO2                               Sulphur Dioxide

SPS                Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreements

TBT               Technical Barrier to Trade Agreement

TEU               Treaty on European Union

WTO              World Trade Organization

RCRA             Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (US)

PSD               Prevent of Significant Deterioration Programme (US)

CERCLA         Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and

 Liability Act (us) also known as the Superfund)



Prior to 1998, Environmental law as a course of study was not really regarded as an important field of law, thus a dearth of laws, policy and text in the country. However, with increasing interest in legal research on the subject, the environmental concern generated at the international level and the high level of environmental degradation especially in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where crude oil is mostly exploited, there has emerged a growing need to protect and conserve the environment.

In the bid to manage and control widespread anthropogenic environmental degradation, Nigeria formulated environmental protection policies spanning 1915 to 1992. This review study is a critique of these policies, not only that, many of this policies are out dated, many are fragmented. Many of them were not formulated with contributions from informed masses nor based on nationally generated baseline data. Rather they are mostly guidelines and standards adapted from the adopted and approved materials of the appropriate system of the United Nations thereby comprising socio-economic and climate differences. Participation of the people in policy formulation and implementation is lacking in Nigeria.










Title page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Certification -      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Declaration        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Dedication -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      

Acknowledgement      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Table of abbreviations -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Table of cases    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Abstract     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

Table of content -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -



1.0 Background of the Study        -       -       -       -       -       -       -      

1.2 Statement of Problem    -       -       -       -       -       -       -

1.3 Objectives of the Study  -       -       -       -       -       -       -

1.4 Scope of the Study        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

1.5 Significance of the Study        -       -       -       -       -       -       -

1.6 Methodology of the Study      -       -       -       -       -       -

1.7 Structural and Organization of the Study  -       -       -       -



2.0 Brief History of Environmental Law  -       -       -       -       -

2.1 Why Study Environmental Law        -       -       -       -       -       -

2.2 Environmental Degradation and its Implications        -       -       -

2.3 Causes of Environmental Degradation      -       -       -       -

2.4 Implication to Environmental Degradation to Health   -       -      


3.0 Environmental Protection and Conservation      -       -       -      

3.0.1 Approach to Environmental Agreement  -       -       -       -

3.1 Impact on Environmental Conservation and Protection       -       -

3.2 The Impact of Technology and Industrialization and

      Problems posed to the Society       -       -       -       -       -       -      

3.2.1 Production of Chemical        -       -       -       -       -       -       -

3.2.2 The Increase in Population and Urbanization -       -       -      

3.3.3 Production and Disposal of Garbage and Waste -   -       - 


4.0 Legal Framework           -       -       -       -       -       -       -

4.1.1 Environmental Protection     -       -       -       -       -       -

4.1.2 Development      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

4.1.3 Sustainable Development    -       -       -       -       -       -

4.1 Environmental Laws and Policies in Nigeria       -       -       -       -      

4.2 Environmental Management  -       -       -       -       -       -



5.0 Conclusion    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

5.1 Recommendation  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -

5.2 Bibliography -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -







1.0   Background of Study

Discovering a workable definition of environmental law is a little bit like the search for truth, the closer you get the more elusive it becomes.

One influential writer describes environment as the creation on earth for living things. Ecology is thus “the science of planetary housekeeping” so building on these definitions, environmental law can be said to be the law of planetary housekeeping, it is concern with protecting the planet and it people from activities that upset the earth and its life sustaining capacity.

A corollary of this definition is that man himself is the most notorious up setter of life on earth. His interventions in the environment often well intentioned have led to the unantipated and dangerous effect to the environment and to human health. Pogo is not wrong when he said “we have met the enemy and it is us” it is too optimistic what man has done wrong, man can set straight, environmental law does not pretend to repeal the wind, rain and the laws of ecology; it is aimed at man consciousness in his activities.

Environmental law is not concerned solely with the natural environment, the physical condition of land, air and water it also embraces the human environment, health, and other man made conditions affecting a human being place on earth. The natural environmental policy act of 1969 ties its requirements for the preparation of impact statements to “major federal actions significantly” affecting the quality of the human environment.

Environmental law thus focuses upon people from the perspective of their external surroundings, both natural and artificial. It goes without saying that these surroundings are important, i.e. our physical nature, mental health, culture and fulfillment, and our very survival, all of these are directly related and affected by the environment in which we live.

1.1   Statement of Problem

The climate in which business and industry operate today no longer requires embarking on voyage through uncharted waters while attempting to navigate through the snares, and changing currents known as environmental law and regulations.

Over the years, the steady proliferation of federal and governmental laws and regulations has forced business, industry public enterprises and each governmental agencies to change the manner in which various types of commercial and industrial operations are performed in order to come into compliance with the environmental regulations. It is this environmental protection that informed this research work.

1.2   Objectives of Study

The objectives of study is  to access the historical  aspect of environmental law, know why environmental law matters, identify the problems associated with environmental degradation and its implication to human health and environment, access the  causes of environmental degradation, and to also explain briefly and list out the effect of environmental degradation and sustainable development in Nigeria.

1.3   Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the legal framework for environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria.

1.4   Significance of Study

This research is of utmost significant regardless to the fact that most environmental laws have been in existence for quite some time, the broad system of environmental regulation remain complex, and its understanding is ever confounded by periodic statutory amendment, ongoing challenges to existing regulations and continues instruction of new regulation. Consequently in other to minimize if not eliminate, the rick of incurring costly liabilities and penalties for no compliance with environmental laws, must companies have created distinct environmental management department staff of environmental professionals who specialize in the evaluation of day to day operation for compliance with the extensive network of environmental regulatory requirement. This research also emphasis on the regulatory requirement of environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria.







1.5   Methodology of Study

 In the cause of this research, different methods where used. It is a purely library base research which draws secondary data from textbooks, law journals, newspapers, magazines, law report and the internet.

1.6   Structure and Organization of Study

This study is organized into five chapters, chapter one contains the general introduction on the research work. Chapter two dwells on the historical background of environmental law, chapter three focuses on the environmental protection and conservation while chapter four emphasis on the prospective of environmental law. The conclusion, recommendation and bibliography are captured in chapter five of this research.

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