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1.1 Background of the study
A healthful school environment is that which embraces the health and safety of learners and other members of the school community. It is an essential factor in achieving the overall goals of the School Health Program (SHP) because it has implications for all areas of school health. It attends to the physical and aesthetic surroundings, psychosocial climate and culture of the school community as defined in the National School Health Policy. The factors that influence the physical environment include the school building and all the areas surrounding it including biological or chemical agents, the weather and other forms of pollution that affect learners and staff of the school community. Such agents include insects, pest and vectors, temperature and humidity, noise and lighting, etc. The psychosocial environment includes the interrelated physical, emotional and social conditions that affect the well-being and productivity of learners and staff of the school community. The universal basic education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things to facilitate the standard of literacy and improve societal development, the UBE is a nine year program that cover six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as upper basic (Basic 7-9). This upper basic level is aimed at preparing the youths for gainful employment or progression into the senior secondary level and subsequent admission into higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Undoubtedly, these functions are very essential to the survival, enhancement and development of the Nigeria society. However, the extent to which the upper basic education level achieves the set aims is largely dependent on the various subjects in the curriculum and how they are taught in schools.
an assessment of school health policies and institutions that affect young children in Nigeria. The analysis is based on a World Bank tool developed as part of the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) initiative that aims to systematically assess education systems against evidence Ͳbased global standards and good practice to help countries reform their education systems to help ensure learning for all. School health policies are a critical component of an effective education system, given that children's health impacts their school attendance, ability to learn, and overall development. SABERͲ School Health collects, analyzes, and disseminates comprehensive information on school health policies around the world. The overall objective of the initiative is to help countries design effective policies to improve their education systems facilitate comparative policy analysis, identify key areas to focus investment, and assist in disseminating good practice.
Education in the Federal Republic of Nigeria has made significant progress and is seen as an important tool for the country’s economic growth and poverty reduction. The structure of the Nigerian education system is known as the 6Ͳ3Ͳ3Ͳ4 system, wherein the first nine years are basic education composed of six years of primary and three years of junior secondary education, the next three years are senior secondary education, and the final four years are tertiary education. Pre primary education spans three years and is not compulsory. The responsibility to provide the various levels of education is divided between the federal, state, and local governments as outlined in the Constitution, although some responsibilities are shared (concurrent), rather than exclusive. The average years of schooling for youths (ages 17–22 years) has been increasing, from 5.6 in 1990 to 8.6 in 2010. Nigeria implemented its National Policy on Education in 1977 and updated it in 2004. The policy states that the government should provide universal access to basic education, which includes primary and lower secondary education. Access to education has not been equal for all. One in every three of primary school age children still does not have access to primary education. To improve access, the government established the Universal Basic Education Program in 2000 and later passed the Universal Basic Education Policy in 2004 to expand the central government’s role in managing basic education and to set the goal of providing free basic education to all children by 2015.12 The gross primary enrolment rate increased from 98 percent in 2000 to 102 percent in 2006, but the rate has been slowly declining. In 2010, the gross primary enrolment rate had decreased to 85 percent.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The majority of the children who have no access to primary education are in the rural areas and poor households. in Nigeria even though primary education is said to be free and compulsory; it has not solved the nutritional requirement of these kids in either because of the exorbitant cost of food items or as a result of lack of availability of nutritionist in the schools. It is on this backdrop that the researcher is interested in comparing and analyzing the nutritional policy and implementation in public and private schools in Lagos state.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to critically compare and analysis of nutritional policy and implementation in public and private schools in Lagos state, Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study the researcher intends to achieve the following objective;
i) To ascertain the importance of implementation of nutritional policy in schools in Lagos state
ii) To ascertain the relationship between nutritional policy and academic performance
iii) To compare the nutritional policy implementation between public and private schools
iv) To evaluate the importance of nutrition in the academic well being of the students
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study; the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher.
H0: implementation of nutritional policy has no significant importance in student’s academic performance
H1: implementation of nutritional policy has a significant importance in student’s academic performance
H02: there is no significant relationship between nutritional policy and academic performance of the student’s
H2: there is a significant relationship between nutritional policy and academic performance of the student’s.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study; the findings will be of great importance to the management of public and private institution in the as the findings will guide them on the benefit of adhering to the nutritional policy stipulated by the state and federal board of education. The study will also be of great importance to the parents of these kids as the finding will show them the importance of nutrition in the academic performance of the students. The study will also be of great importance to researchers who intends to embark on study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to them. Finally the study will also be of great importance to teachers, student’s lecturers and the general public
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers comparative analysis of nutritional policy and implementation in public and private school in Lagos state. However, in the course of the study; the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study. Some of these constrain are;
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion
Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by the Board of or senior governance body within an organization where as procedures or protocols would be developed and adopted by senior executive officers
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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