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The study was aimed at finding out the challenges of teaching home economics in Nigeria. A sample of 78 home economics teachers were randomly sampled from schools and colleges in Ojo Lagos of Nigeria was used for the study. The instrument was a 4-point Likert type scale with a reliability coefficient of 0.875. The research question was answered using means (x), standard deviation (SD) and one-sample test statistics. While t-test was used to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that teaching home economics in nigeria poses a lot of challenges schools as there is little or no instructional materials in place. There is no significant influence of gender of teachers on the subject matter. Premised on these findings it was recommended among other things that government should adequately finance teacher education and adequate instructional facilities both in quality and quantity should be provided for effective teaching-learning process in schools and colleges in the country
1.1 Background to the Study
The investigation of the challenges of teaching of home economics subject in schools and colleges is indisputable. The teaching of home economics subject in Nigerian schools and colleges needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the secondary school levels of our education system is undeniably a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.
Educational resources assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2007). Educational resources include teachers and instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in teaching and communicating ideas of home economics subject. These languages include theory or verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or mathematical language.
The importance and technicality of home economics subject makes it necessary that relevant human resources and instructional materials should be used to teach it to the learners at secondary level. This fact is supported by Macaulay (2009) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance secondary school students performance in home economics subject.
Poor academic achievement in home economics subject could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of home economics concepts might not be fully achieved without availability and efficient use of the use instructional resources. The teaching of home economics without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer et al, (2002) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
Researchers such as Obioha (2006) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching in schools and colleges in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.
However, a conceptually sound, well designed, properly implemented evaluation system of home economics resources is indeed an essential component for effectiveness of home economics and a key to increasing performance in home economics subject in schools. Evaluation of home economics resources is important for determining the reasons for effective implementation and delivery of educational policies, programmes or projects. For example, the findings of a formative evaluation process can provide valuable feedback on issues such as the planning and design of courses, as well as aspects of the content and the teaching methods employed.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been complaining of failure in the major course like Business Studies.
The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in home economics subject that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (2004) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials utilisation of teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. This has been the motivation for the study to focus on investigation of the challenges of teaching home economics subject in schools and colleges.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The aim of the research is to investigate the challenges of teaching home economics in schools and colleges in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The objectives of this study are to:
1. Determine the available resources for teaching home economics subject in schools and colleges in Ojo local government area of Lagos State.
2. Ascertain the extent to which Secondary School students learning home economics subject are influenced by the use of instructional materials.
3. Evaluate the state of resources available for the teaching of home economics in Ojo local government area of Lagos State.
4. Determine whether there is any difference in the academic performance of schools and colleges students in home economics subject due to the availability and use of instructional materials.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:
1. What resources are available for teaching and learning of home economics subject in schools and colleges?
2. Which educational resources will influence the teaching and application of home economics subject in schools and colleges?
3. What is the state or condition of the available resources to teach and learn home economics subject in secondary school?
4. Will there be any difference in the performance of secondary school students in home economics subject due to the availability and challenges for teaching and learning?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested for the study:
1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers on the challenges of teaching of home economics subject.
2. There is no significant difference between the responses of experienced and inexperience teachers on the challenges of teaching of home economics subject.
3. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of public and private school teachers on the challenges of teaching home economics subject.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The use of instructional materials gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is focused on the challenges of teaching home economics in Ojo LGA of Lagos State. Due to time and financial constraints, the study is limited to selected schools and colleges in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is because the researcher has more and immediate access to the schools and colleges in this local government area and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environs.
1.8 Limitation of Study
The limitation that encountered in the course of this research study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most people were reluctant in filling research questionnaires given to them due to their busy schedules and nature of work. The researcher would found it difficult to collect responses on time and this hampered the success of the study.
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