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1.1 Background of the study
Education is universally recognized as the answer to socio- economic problems of the world. Nations and individuals look up to education to provide a cure for poverty, ignorance, drought, excessive rainfall, mental deficiency, joblessness, bad government, poor communication system, hunger and inadequate shelter among other things. Every nation of the world aspires toward quality of life and social status. Career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision will impart them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is will revolve around what the student want to do with their life- long work. The choice of career has been a serious problem among the secondary school students in Nigeria. No matter what one’s age is, the choice of career or desire is an important question for everybody.
A lot of student in secondary schools believe that their future is a glorious adventures in which they are bound to succeed. Many of them have the idea that they would be able to work in the public or private establishments as soon as they complete secondary school education. Some have planned to become lawyers, engineers, medical doctors, accountants and so on. Students in secondary schools like many other young adults are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult they will become. They are concerned about early entry into the occupational world and finding productive and rewarding places in and out rapidly, fast changing societies where wages employment is unlikely to be available on a scale sufficient to absorb more than a small fraction of the young people when they do arrive at the labor market. The conflict of choice of career among youths constitute an educational social dilemma in our society and nation .therefore constructive analysis must be made to this issue with a view to proffering recommendations and guide to enable youths to make proper decision of future career.
These constructive analysis lie within the environmental factors in which the youth operates or is domiciled. The youth are largely influenced by this environmental issues; so if not guided may be propelled to make wrong choices. It is the fragility and significance of these issues that stresses the importance of a research of this nature. The research shall appraise the impact of environmental factor on choice of career among youths in Nigeria. Education is universally recognized as the answer to socio- economic problems of the world. Nations and individuals look up to education to provide a cure for poverty, ignorance, drought, excessive rainfall, mental deficiency, joblessness, bad government, poor communication system, hunger and inadequate shelter among other things. Every nation of the world aspires toward quality of life and social status. Career selection is one of many important choices students will make in determining future plans. This decision will impart them throughout their lives. The essence of who the student is will revolve around what the student want to do with their life- long work. The choice of career has been a serious problem among the secondary school students in Nigeria. No matter what one‟s age is, the choice of career or desire is an important question for everybody. A lot of student in secondary schools believe that their future is a glorious adventures in which they are bound to succeed. Many of them have the idea that they would be able to work in the public or private establishments as soon as they complete secondary school education. Some have planned to become lawyers, engineers, medical doctors, accountants and so on. Students in secondary schools like many other young adults are always worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult they will become. They are concerned about early entry into the occupational world and finding productive and rewarding places in and out rapidly, fast changing societies where wages employment is unlikely to be available on a scale sufficient to absorb more than a small fraction of the young people when they do arrive at the labour market. How the young people of today meet the problems of tomorrow will depend upon the amount of success they make in planning for that tomorrow. Planning for tomorrow itself is primarily the responsibilities of the parents, teachers and school counselor. Students need general orientation into the world of work through the curriculum. The choice of career is a delicate issue that requires caution and serious considerations. The kind of career the youths pursue can affect their lives in many ways. For example, it can determine where the individual lives and the type of friends kept. It can reflect how much education one will have and determine the amount of money one will earn. People desires from a career are different, many people desire high income; others want adventures while some others want to serve people to make the world a better place. Every student carries the unique history of their past and this determines how they view the world That history created, in part by the student‟s environment, personality and opportunity will determine how students make career choices. It then follows that how the student perceives their environment, personality and opportunity will also determine the career choices students make. The first factor in career choice, the environment, may influence the career students choose. For example, students who lived on an island may choose a career dealing with the water, or they may choose to leave the island behind, never to have anything to do with water again. Maybe someone in the student‟s life has made a significant impact or impression, leading to a definite career choice. Parent‟s educational background may influence student views on whether or not to continue their education. Someone they saw on television may have influenced the student, or parents may have demanded that they assume a family business. These are various environmental factors that would lead a student to a chosen career. How students have seen themselves in a role in which personality is a determining factor may influence a chosen career. Some careers demand that you have the personality to match the qualities of the occupation. For example, sales people have to be out- going. Splaver (2000) said “personality” plays an important role in the choosing of the right career. A student‟s personality must be self motivated type, as to investigate career possibilities from early on in their lives, and not the procrastinating type that waits till they are compelled to decide. Students must take seriously the role grades play in limiting opportunities in the future. Splaver went on to say “It is important for you to have a good understanding of yourself, your personality, if you are to make intelligent career plans”. (Splaver 2000, p. 12). Opportunity is the third factor that has shaped career choices for students. Opportunity may influence how students have perceived their future in terms of the reasonable probability of a future in particular career fields. The issue of poverty has played an important determining role in the opportunities available to all. The income level of secondary school families may determine what career a student chooses during a specific time in the student‟s life; choices that will determine a large part of that student‟s future. Some students will have to budget education according to their personal income. Thout (1969) addressed those in desperate needs, “Where necessary, these persons (individuals described as living under poverty level) must be assisted through special training programs to overcome educational and social handicaps so that minimum job standards can be met” (p.1). Students in many cases will need the proper mentoring opportunities to succeed. These support groups will be another opportunity that if properly implemented, can help a student in the career choice process. The creation of support groups will have to be in place to sustain the student through times of financial, emotional and educational need. There are indications that students take the path of least resistance to enter the tertiary institutions. If a parent had exerted enough pressure on the student to enter a particular career field and the student had no current plans, then students followed their parents‟ suggestion. Student should be thinking about career decisions in their senior year of secondary school. It should become apparent at that time that the student will have to do something. The environment plays a large part in a student‟s career choice. Students traditionally stay at home to either obtain education or start employment. Marriage also played a large part in career decisions. The economics of marriage either solidified the commitment to go on to higher education or stopped career plan short, depending on the stability of the marriage. Examples such as these are opportunities that can play a large determining factor in student‟s career choice. Other environmental determinants would include recreational facilities and articles the student has seen in local papers or on the television. The student‟s support system made up of parents, relatives, siblings, peers, teachers and counselors may be the most environmental factor. As we can see, there are many opportunities or paths to be explored by secondary school students. Secondary school senior students will have accomplished choosing a career if a complete, thoughtful, education decision was made, evaluating all of the factors possible in career choice process. According to Alutu (2001) career choice should be initiated as early as the nursery school years through the primary, secondary and to the tertiary school levels. Individual social status, income, lifestyle, choice of friends, mental and physical health is influenced by the type of work he or she does. In other words, a person‟s career choice plays an important role in his or her entire life. Career choice decision making is not an easy task, yet at one time or the other, individuals are faced with the task of making choice in career, preparing for it, starting it and making progress in it. This choice point is undoubtedly the most critical stage. This is because making a wrong career decision can mar one‟s happiness in life as this could result to career maladjustment. Inappropriate career decision made may spell doom not only for the individual but also the entire society. In view of the foregoing, the need to equip our students with appropriate Career decision skills becomes highly imperative.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem confronting this research is to appraise the impact of environmental factor on choice of career among youths in Nigeria. There exists a great conflict on the selection of a choice of career among the youths. Analyzing these factors would help profer possible solution to guide the youths in right career choices.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
1 What is the nature of environmental factors influencing the choice of career among the youths?
2 What is the nature of career choices facing the youths?
3 What is the impact of environmental factors on the choice of career among the youth in Nigeria?
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To appraise the nature of career choices facing the youth in Nigeria
To determine the impact of environmental factors on the career choices of the youth in Nigeria
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall facilitate possible solutions to helping youths make right decision on the choices of future career.
It shall provide detail source of information on career decision choices for the youths, etc.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: The conflict of wrong career choices among youths is high
H1: The conflict of wrong career choices among youth is low
H0: Conflict of environmental factor s is high
H1: conflict of environmental factor is lo
H0: The impact of environmental factors on career choices among youths is low
H1: The impact of environmental factors on career choices among youths is high
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the appraisal of the impact of environmental factors on the choice of career among youths in Nigeria
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CAREER CHOICE: The broad opportunities that exist for lifelong vocations. These vocations are set out in a framework of strategies moving toward personal goals.
ENVIRONMENT: The complex physical factors that make up our surroundings and in turn act upon us. This include the forces of family, political, social and economic issues that both typical and non- typical students may deal with on a day- to- day basis.
MOTIVATION: Forces acting on or within a person causing initiation of behavior or what it is that moves us.
OPPORTUNITY: Those choices in one’s life which are exposed either in a subtle or obvious manner.
PERSONALITY: A characteristic way of thinking, feeling and behaving. The personality is the collection of impression in the appearance of the student’s body and the impressions believed to have been made on others, good or bad. One’s personality may embrace attitudes and opinions that affect the way we deal with interactions of people and, in particular to this study, the situations of choosing a career.
PEERS: Peers are adolescents who are about the same age of maturity level.
QUALITY OF LIFE: The depth in the content of richness and fullness in our day- to- day existence. This includes observed and unobserved criteria that contribute to the fulfillment with our expectations and aspirations
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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