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This study was aimed at contributing to the efforts directed at managing Carbon(iv) oxide, CO2

emission by assessing the CO2     emissions and management strategies in the Nigerian

manufacturing industries using some selected industries at Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun state.

The main objectives of the study are to determine the amount of CO2 emitted from the stationery

sources of the selected industries in the study area between the periods of June 2015 to May

2016, and to compare this amount with the inclusion threshold i.e. the maximum allowable

amount of CO2 emission of various emission management programmes around the world. The

study also checked for the performance of each of the industry as regards CO2 management best

practices. The industries were grouped into different industrial strata according to Manufacturers

Association of Nigeria industrial classification, after which one industry was picked per stratum.

Five industries namely; Industry N, Industry G, Industry Q, Industry D and Industry P were

randomly selected using dip in the basket method from a total of seventeen industries for the

study. The identity of the industries was concealed due to security reasons. The use of

documented emission factors in measuring CO2 emission was the adopted method in this work.

Twelve months’ fuel consumption records of each emission source from each selected industry

was collated and examined, this was then used to calculate the CO2 emission for each emission

source by multiplying the monthly volume/mass (as the case may be) of the fossil fuel

combusted with the appropriate emission factor. The performance of each of the industry as

regards CO2 management best practices was assessed using a GHG best management practice

checklist adapted from that of the World Wildlife Fund which was used for their Low Carbon

Manufacturing Programme. Results showed that Industry N emitted a total of 7714.65 tones of

CO2, Industry G emitted 45,055.45 tones of CO2, Industry Q emitted 8,200.94 tones of CO2,

Industry D emitted 53,195.54 tones of CO2 and Industry P emitted 49,247.78 tones of CO2


during the studied period. These figures are larger than the inclusion threshold of many carbon

management programmes around the world. Statistical significance findings showed that natural

gas fuel and natural gas combusting stationery equipments are the major contributors of the CO2

emitted in the assessed industries. Also all the industries practice a poor CO2 emission

management. The study concluded that a significant amount of CO2 was emitted by the assessed

industries and these were majorly contributed by natural gas fuel combustion, the industries also

practice a very poor CO2 emission management. It is therefore recommended that industries

should focus their attention on natural gas and natural gas combusting sources for their emission

management      activities,      environmental      regulators      should      develop      an      emission

standards/programme where a cap or a predetermined maximum allowable amount of CO2 is

allocated to industries and there is need for consideration of the other greenhouse gas emissions

in subsequent studies.


1.1 Background to the Study

Warming of the climate system is an undisputable fact of the 21st century (Intergovernmental

Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2001). This average increase in global temperature is

unequivocal, as it is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean

temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level (IPCC,

2007). Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than

any preceding decades since 1850, and the period from 1983 to 2012 was likely the warmest 30-

year period of the last 1400 years in the Northern Hemisphere (IPCC, 2014). The globally

averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend show

a warming of 0.85 (0.65 to 1.06) °C over the period 1880 to 2012 (IPCC, 2014).

This observed increase in global average temperatures and the associated climate change has

been attributed with a very high level of confidence and strong scientific consensus to the

increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations which is largely due to fossil

fuel combustion and to a smaller extent due to changes in land use and deforestation (United

Nations, 2013). These gases have been proven to be capable of absorbing infrared radiation as it

is reflected from the earth’s surface, therefore acting like a blanket, trapping heat, and keeping

the earth warm, a process known as the greenhouse effect (World Resource Institute, WRI,

2006).The Kyoto protocol identified six of these gases that affect the energy balance of the

global atmosphere and needs to be urgently addressed, they include, carbon dioxide (CO2) the

most prevalent, followed by methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2

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