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Solid waste management has emerged as a major environmental mental threat for cities worldwide (van de van de Klundent et al 2003). In a survey released by UNDP in 1997, 151 majors cities from around the world ranked insufficient solid waste disposal as their second most urgent urban challenges surpassed only by unemployment and followed by urban poverty.
Waste is a continually growing problem at global, regional and local levels and one of the most intractable problems for local authorities in urban centers with continuous economic development and an increase in living standards the demand for goods and services is increasing quietly resulting in a commensurate increase in per capital waste generation (Narayara, 2003). In most developing countries, the problem is compounded by rapid urbanization, the introduction of environmentally unfriendly material, changing consumer consumption patterns, lack of political comment, insufficient budgetary allocations and ill motivated workforce.
Also solid waste management problem appears to be most prominent in urban cities and large towns across the world due to the huge quantity of solid waste generated from domestic and commercial activities. In most cities and large towns of the world, solid waste is not only heaped in huge quantities on refuse dumps but also thrown and made to lie around in piles in the street and in a small illegal dump on any piece of unused land. Most Third world countries have worst cases than industrialized countries which have the money, technical knowhow and public attitude to control and manage their waste to some degree (Leonard N 2001).
Furthermore solid waste management according to the United Nation Environmental Policies (2008) defined solid waste management as the collection, transportation, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste material. It can be the supervision of how waste material from generation of the same through the recovery processes to disposal.
Man is behind every development endeavor such as large scale production and improper disposal of waste in his environment. However, solid waste is said to be associated with rapid growth rate of population which has led to increase in the degree of urbanization. Therefore it encourage source of pollution and further environmental degradation which has resulted in serious deterioration in quality of life and ecological balance (Maraduchallam 1990). The growth of human population, coupled with increased economic activities in towns and cities result in high rate of solid waste generation. A fundamental attribute of solid waste is that it is inevitable as almost every human activity involves the generation of waste in solid, liquid or gaseous forms. Social dynamics such as modernization and economic development influence waste generation. This calls for careful planning and adequate resource allocation to forestall a mismatch between the rates of waste generation collection and disposal. The environment act of the United Kingdom defines “waste as any substance or object which the “helder” discard or intend to discard (Seoetal 2004). Peter et al 1974, says the problem of refuse (waste) generation and dumping began with the beginning of civilization and urbanization. Philip (1991) went ahead to say “every generation comes up with new trend in civilization and urbanization” also, so does that generation produce its own kind of refuse, waste that have peculiar impact to the environment.
Management of solid waste is one of the challenges facing any urban areas in the world. The problem is compounded as developing countries continue to urbanize rapidly (Hope, 1998). Many parts of our cities and towns do not benefit from any organized waste management service and therefore waste are unattended to buried, burnt or disposed haphazardly. In areas where the authorities do the collection, it is often irregular and sporadic. Recycling of waste is negligible while the methods used for collection, transportation and final disposal are very unsatisfactory.
Solid waste management has gained notoriety in Nigeria today because of its visibility and the embarrassment it has constituted to the image of the nation. Only few state capitals have been able to put in place fairly sustainable urban waste management programmed. It is therefore a common site to find mountain of waste scattered all over our cities for days or even weeks with no apparent effort displayed at getting rid of them even with the attendant risk of air and ground water. Although, government effort in dealing with the problem of waste management has led to the establishment of different agencies of federal, state and local government level (Dazi, 1992). The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) was established in 1998 to control the growing problems of waste management and pollution in Nigeria entirely (Kumuy 2003). Vision 2010 was FEPAS attempt to address environmental problems in the nation despite mountainous heap of solid waste are still prominent features in most of our cities because there is no effective adequate and efficient solid waste collection, transportation and disposal facilities(Dazi, 1997).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
There seems to be direct relationship between population growth and increase in solid waste generation as well as solid waste management. The solid waste disposal system being practiced today is ineffective to get rid of solid waste generated. One of the major environmental problems facing government globally is poor capacity to undertake solid waste management. Yet, waste management is a very important task that must not be treated lightly because of its effects on the society. Beside the consequences on human wellbeing there are associated environmental and economic costs. Uncollected waste (often mixed with human and animal excreta) or wastes dumped discriminately on the streets and in drains contributes to flooding, breed of insects and rodents, vectors and the spread of disease (Lohni 1984, Kungskulniti 1990) solid waste management and disposal in Kaduna south local government area is a major problem that requires an immediate and efficient. The spatial variation in waste generation within the level of housing types is a problem that will require different methods of waste disposal and management. This study will therefore work on various problems e.g. solid waste management in Kaduna south L.G.A of Kaduna state and also analyze the impact the solid waste management has in the study area.
The management of solid waste in Kaduna south L.G.A is the responsibility of the state and local government. The Federal Government has added effort in the past, by establishing various environmental agencies and the war against indiscipline monthly environmental sanitation and construction of public toilets in different public places in order to ease the problem of solid waste management. Despite this the volume of collection of waste and dump on the street and other designated spits is increasing in virtually all urban area due to ineffective waste control and management. However, this action of solid waste management has implemented over these past years through government policy and support from other stake-holders. But even with that, not all the places, in the study area benefit from it. This is to establish short coming with a view to making appropriate proposals and recommendations for improvement.
This is the background against which the research is establish
1. What are the methods of solid waste management?
2. What are the problems of solid waste management?
3. What are the implication of solid waste disposal?
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of the study is to analyze solid waste management in Kaduna South L.G.A of Kaduna State.
i. Examine solid waste management
ii. Analyze the effectiveness of waste disposal system.
iii. Examine strategies for coping indiscriminate waste disposal
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The study has focus on the analysis of solid waste management in Kaduna South L.G.A. it covers only strategic area within Kaduna South L.G.A where litter of refuse often accumulate along roads and public places, creating breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodent responsible for the spread of many diseases. The area to be sample is the Television Village ward.
The desire for us to manage our environment is of something good. It is the distortion of our inherent human desire to exercise control over our environment if we are to keep our environment worthy of living. Environmental Legacy for the future generation is necessary because of the increasing awareness of dangers posed by waste which may result to hazard.
The choice of Kaduna South L.G.A as the study area is based on the fact that it is a common sight to see heaps of solid waste openly dumped amidst residential areas. Increase in population is a major factor to the poor solid waste management in Television Village ward of Kaduna South Local Government Area because in the past when the area was sparsely populated there was no proper channel of solid waste disposal and the people resident in the area have also shown an uncultured manner of disposing waste by dropping tin cans, plastic containers etc. where ever they want to, be it on the street, in the drainage and some time on the roof tops, presently the area is densely populated leading to an increase to the already bad solid waste management in existence because the more the population the more the materials such as tin can, plastic etc., that constitute this waste are been used and disposed improperly.
Also economic activities have multiplied proportionately with the population size because the more the population the more people get involving the use of materials that constitute this solid waste, it could be the sale of can drinks, plastic, polythene bags, fast food package as souvenirs, etc. the sale of all these have gained grounds with the rapid rise in population size to meet the immediate daily needs of individuals, workers, commuters and passerby that have to cope with eating and drinking always from home to meet up with daily work and business schedule.
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