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1.1 Background to the study
The construction industry is dynamic in nature due to the increasing uncertainties in technology, budgets, and development processes (Chan, Scott and Ada, 2004). They further reported that, building projects are becoming much more complex and difficult, and facing unprecedented changes. Those uncertainties, along with many other documented problems, are the root causes of project delays and decline in construction projects performance (Ofori, 1991; Ogunlana, Promkuntong and Jearkirm, 1996).
The improvement of performance has become more critical to the success of construction projects which have been the subject of considerable amount of research and attention over the past two decades (Al-Otaibi, Omani and Price, 2013).
Studies have shown decline in construction projects performance both locally and internationally (Ogunlana, Li and Sukhera, 2003; Komolafe, Kingsley and Muhammad, 2014).
A number of authors have worked significantly on ways to improve performance from the view point of traditional criteria (i.e. cost, time and quality) (Neely et al., 1994; Idrus and Sodangi, 2010; Barkley and Saylor, 1994). Furthermore, in response to the decline of projects performance, several studies have developed and advocated the use of frameworks for assessing construction projects with a view to improve their performance (Cocca and Alberti, 2009; Kagioglou, Cooper and Ghassan, 2001; Belassi and Tukel, 2006). But the frameworks developed by several researches were mostly based on the traditional criteria that have been highly criticized (Paul, 2014). Additionally, some authors have argued that construction project
performance criteria should be look beyond the traditional criteria. They suggested that the non-traditional (i.e. sustainable development, partnership, research and development etc) should also be considered while determining project performance in today’s construction industry (Xiao and Proverbs, 2003; Kingsley, 2010; Idrus, Sodangi, and Haq Husin, 2011). In furtherance, the position of the authors is that the non-traditional criteria also influence performance.
Xiao and Proverbs (2003) stated that, traditionally, clients normally expect their projects to be delivered within budget, on time and to the level of quality required. However, achieving those traditional criteria should not be at the expense of other project objectives (sustainable development, and other non-traditional criteria). This is because the non-traditional criteria also enhance construction project performance. They further identified a range of criteria that should be considered while assessing construction project performance these include; construction cost, cost certainty, client satisfaction on cost, construction time, time certainty, client satisfaction on time, defect, being called upon, liability period, client satisfaction on quality, profitability, investment in research & development and training, environment protection and health and safety.
Similarly, Idrus et al. (2011) also identified a range of criteria that should be considered while assessing construction project performance these include; construction cost, construction time, quality of finished projects, occupational health and safety, level of technology, environmental management, construction flexibility, labour dependency, quality of coordination by construction team, contractors project management and contractors’ capacity on manpower. The range of emerging criteria provided in literature comprises both the traditional and non-traditional criteria.
The reason of proposing the emerging construction project performance measurement criteria is because they also influence performance. Framework being system or structure that could be used as the basis for making judgments, decisions etc. Following that, developing a framework using the emerging performance measurement criteria as suggested by Kingsley (2010) will serve as a guide to construction professionals, clients and contractors toward achieving the industry stakeholders’ goals or objectives (i.e. client satisfaction, profits and environment management).
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Researches have shown that the use of traditional set of criteria (i.e. cost, time and quality) only, while assessing project performance is not adequate for use in today’s construction industry (Xiao and Proverbs, 2003; Kingsley, 2010; Idrus et al, 2011; Komolafe et al, 2014). The traditional criteria is viewed as inadequate due to the fact that it does not take into account some set of emerging criteria which include issues to do with sustainable development, partnership, research and development etc. Furthermore, Paul (2014) reported that most Nigerian construction organisations/firms still rely on financial measures (traditional approach) which have been highly criticized. And a number of studies have developed frameworks for determining construction project performance which were mostly based on the traditional criteria that have been highly criticized (Cocca and Alberti, 2009; Kagioglou, Cooper and Ghassan, 2001; Belassi and Tukel, 2006). Following that, researches have advocated the use of some set of emerging/non-traditional criteria for determining construction projects performance. As a result, several researches have been carried out in order to determine construction project performance from the perspective of professionals, clients and contractors only. However, there was no research work carried out on the development of framework for determining performance of construction projects using the emerging measurement criteria and from the perspective of End-users in Northern Nigeria.
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